UTRECHT. 45. Route. 293
Room I. Two richly ornamented capitals of the 11th cent.; statue
of John the Baptist, 11th cent.; relief with the Madonna, St. James, and
St. Jerome, 15th cent., all from Utrecht churches. — Room II. Reliefs
with saints, from chimney-pieces of the 15th cent.; recumbent sepulchral
figure of a knight, 14th cent.; carved wooden brackets of the 15th cent.
— Room III. Upper part of a gable in the richest early - Renaissance
style, with a statue of Charles V. — Room IV. contains Roman and
Germanic antiquities. — Room V. Large stoneware jug, adorned with
the Graces and fine Renaissance ornamentation, executed by Jan Eemensz
of Cologne in 1578; French holster-pistol, with rich copper Renaissance
ornamentation; model of a Dutch citizen's house of the latter half of the
17th cent., with richly carved furniture, miniature portraits by Moucheron
and others, ivory carvings, and a silver stove; small carved table, on
which the Peace of Utrecht is said to have been signed in 1713; collection
of dies for seals and coins. — Rooms VI. and VII. contain several drawings
of the cathedral (before and after the fall of the nave) and other Utrecht
churches, by P. Saenredam, H. Saft-Leven, J. Domer, and other 17th cent.
The Mint ('S Rijks Munt; PL 22), where all the money current
in Holland and its E. Indian colonies is coined, contains Dutch
coins and medals, dies, etc., both ancient and modern.
On the E. side of the town is the famous Maliebaan, a triple
avenue of lime-trees, more than '/2 M. in length, which was
spared by the express command of Louis XIV. at a period when no
respect was paid by his armies to public or private property. It is
approached by the Maliebrug (PL D, 4), and is flanked by hand¬
some houses. •— The Ramparts have been converted into pleasant
promenades, bounded in every direction by flowing water.
Environs. The country for many miles around Utrecht is
attractive, being studded with numerous mansions, parks, and
gardens, and fertilised by the ramifications of the Rhine and a
number of canals. The finest of these seats is the chateau of
Soestdijk, 12 M. to the N. of Utrecht, near the railway-station of
Baarn (p. 307), presented by the States General in 1816 to the
Prince of Orange (afterwards King William II., d. 1849), in recog¬
nition of his bravery at the Battle of Waterloo, which is commem¬
orated by a handsome monument in the avenue. It now belongs
to the present king. — Another pleasant excursion may be taken
by Zeist (p. 285; tramway) and Driebergen to (9 M.) Doom, or to
Amersfoort (p. 308), Hilversum (p. 307), etc.
Utrecht is the principal seat of the Jansenists, a sect of Roman
Catholics who call themselves the Church of Utrecht, and who now exist
almost exclusively in Holland. The founder of the sect was Bishop Jan-
senius of Ypres (p. 26), whose five theses on the necessity of divine grace
in accordance with the tenets of St. Augustine (published by him in
a book termed 'Augustinus') was condemned by a bull of Alexander VII.
in 1656, at the instigation of the Jesuits, as heretical. The adherents of the
bishop refused to recognise this bull, thus de facto separating themselves
from the Church of Rome. The sect was formerly not uncommon in France
and Brabant, but was suppressed in the former country by a bull of
Clement XL in 1713, termed ' Unigenitus', to which the French govern¬
ment gave effect. The Dutch branch of the sect, however, continued to
adhere to their peculiar doctrines. After various disputes with the court
of Rome, a provincial synod was held at Utrecht in 1763 with a view
to effect a compromise.