Cathedral. UTRECHT. 45. Route. 291
zee near Muiden (p. 276). The town is intersected by two canals,
the Oude and Nieuwe Gracht.
The "'Cathedral (PL 1; C, 3), a spacious cruciform edifice in the
Gothic style, dedicated to St. Martin, was erected in 1254-67 by
Bishop Vianden on the site of the original church, which was founded
by St. Willebrordus, Bishop of Utrecht, about 720, and completed
by Bishop Adelbold in 1015. In consequence of a violent hurri¬
cane on 1st Aug., 1674, the nave fell in, and as it was never re-
erected , a wide interval has been left between the choir with the
transept and the W. tower. When complete it was one of the
finest and largest churches in Holland (comp. p. xxxix).
The Interior (the sacristan lives at the N.E. corner of the church;
25 a), which is 115 ft. in height, and 30 ft. in width, is disfigured by
pews, so that the impression produced by this venerable Gothic relic
with its eighteen slender columns is almost entirely destroyed. The
monument of Admiral van Gent, who fell in 1672 at the naval battle of
Soulsbai, was executed in black and white marble by Verhulst in 1676.
The adjacent canopy of painted stone with armorial bearings is the mon¬
ument of Bishop George van Egmont (1549). The extensive vaults beneath
the church contain the hearts of the German Emperors Conrad II. and
Henry V., who died at Utrecht.
The fine Gothic *Cloisters adjoining the choir on the S., re¬
cently restored by Cuypers, connect the Cathedral with the Uni¬
The Cathedral Tower, formerly 364 ft. in height, now 338 ft.
only, erected in 1321-82, having been begun by the architect John
of Hainault, rests on a handsome vaulted passage 36 ft. in height.
It is square in form, with a double superstructure, of which the
upper is octagonal and open. The chimes consist of 42 bells. A
flight of 120 steps ascends to the dwelling of the sacristan (where
the tariff for the ascent is exhibited : 1-2 pers. 25 c.; for a larger
party, 10 c. each), 200 more to the gallery, and 138 thence to
the platform. The view embraces almost the whole of Holland,
and part of Guelders and N. Brabant.
The University (PL 10; C, 3), adjoining the cathedral, with
which it is connected by the above-named cloisters, was founded
in 1636, and has long enjoyed a high reputation (35 professors
and upwards of 500 students). The Aula, in the Gothic style, was
restored in 1879 (comp. p. 290). The Senate Room contains por¬
traits of two professors by Frans Hals and Rembrandt. The most
noteworthy institutions belonging to the university are the Museum
of Natural History, with preparations in wax by Dr. Koning, the
Physical and Chemical Laboratories, and the Meteorological Obser¬
The St. Pieterskerk (PL 5; D, 3), to the E. of the cathedral,
originally a flat-roofed church, supported by columns, was founded
in 1039, but has been frequently renewed; the curious old crypt
with its columns is still preserved. The church is now used by a