Comp. the Plan, p. 294.
Railway Stations: that of the Rhijnspoorweg (PL A, 3; see Route 43),
and that of the Oosterspoorweg (PI. D, 4; see Route 51), connected with
each other by a loop-line.
Hotels. "Hotel des Pats-Bas (PI. a; C, 2), in the Janskerkhof; Hotel
de l'Europe (PI. c; B, 2), and Bellevue (PL d; B, 2), both on the Vree-
burg; :: Oude Kasteel van Antwerpen (PI. b ; B, 2); Hotel de la Station
(PI. e; A, 2), with restaurant and cafe.
Restaurants. De Nieuwe Bak, Lijnmarkt, to the W. of the Cathedral
Lotz. Oudkerkhof, near the town-hall. — Tivoli, popular entertainments
Cabs. From the stations into the town 1-2 pers. 60, 3 pers. 70,
4 pers. 80 c; per hr. for 1-4 pers. 1 fl., each additional '/4 hr. 25 c.
Tramway from the station of the Rhijnspoorweg to Zeisl (p. 285),
every V2 hr. in summer, on Sun. every 20 min. ; fare 35 c
Utrecht ('Oude Trecht', old ford), the capital of the Dutch
province of that name, with 69,700 inhab. (Yard Rom. Cath.), the
Trajectum ad Rhenum (ford of the Rhine) of the Romans, sub¬
sequently called Wiltaburg by the Frisians and Franks, is one
of the most ancient towns in the Netherlands. Dagobert, the first
king of the E. Franks, founded the first church at Utrecht, then
occupied by Frisians , whose bishop was St. Willebrordus. St.
Boniface, a monk from Exeter, who afterwards became archbishop of
Mayence, once taught here. The archbishops of Utrecht were among
the most powerful of mediaeval prelates, and the town was celebrated
at an early period for the beauty of its churches. It first belonged
to Lorraine, and then to the German Empire, and was frequently
the residence of the emperors. The Emp. Conrad II. died here in
1039, and the Emp. Henry V., the last of the powerful Salic line,
in 1125, and both were interred in the cathedral of Spires. The
Emp. Charles V. erected the Vreeburg here in order to keep the
citizens in check, but it was destroyed in 1577 on the outbreak
of the War of Independence. The site of the castle, at the
entrance to the town from the station, still retains the name.
Adrian Floriszoon Boeyens, the tutor of Charles V., one of the
most pious and learned men of his age, afterwards Pope Adrian VI.,
was born at Utrecht in 1459. In 1579 the Union of the seven
provinces of Holland , Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders , Over-Yssel,
Friesland, and Groningen, whereby the independence of the
Netherlands was established, was concluded in the Hall of the
Academy of Utrecht. The States General were in the habit of
assembling here from that date down to 1593, when the seat of
government was transferred to the Hague. In 1672 Louis XIV.
levied a heavy contribution upon the citizens. The celebrated
Peace of Utrecht, which terminated the Spanish War of Succes¬
sion, was concluded here on 11th April, 1713.
At Utrecht the Rhine divides into two branches , one of which,
named the 'Old Rhine', falls into the N. Sea near Katwijk (p. 243),
while the other, called the Vecht, empties itself into the Zuider-