280 Route 42. NORTH SEA CANAL. From Amsterdam
in the building-yards of the E. India Company. The nautical phraseology
of Russia still contains traces of a partially Dutch origin.
To reach the station from the harbour we proceed towards the
W. in the direction of the Zaan, taking the third street on the
left, which is planted with two rows of young trees.
8 M. Koog-Zaandijk, 10M. Wormerveer, 11 M. Krommenie, are
three villages with neat little houses, gardens, and innumerable
windmills, situated on the Zaan. To the S. we see the Groote
Kerk of Haarlem.
15 M. Uitgeest, the junction of the line from Haarlem.
From Haablbm to Uitgeest, 11 M., railway in 38 min. —
Haarlem, see p. 243. The train runs through a pleasant district
towards the N., passing the village of Bloemendaal (p. 249), to
(3 M.) Zandpoort (Duinlust Hotel), near which, to the left, are the
lunatic asylum of Meerenberg and the ruin of Brederode (p. 280).
On the right we observe a succession of rich green pastures with
fine cattle. Near (S^fe M.) Velsen are numerous country-houses and
The train then crosses the new North Sea Canal, which here
intersects the narrowest part of the peninsula of North Holland,
called Holland op zijn Smaalst. The plan of this vast undertak¬
ing was formed in 1862, with a view to secure to Amsterdam the
advantages of a first-rate seaport, the old N. Holland Canal having
long been found insufficient for the requirements of the shipping
traffic. The work was begun on 8th March , 1865, and the bay of
the Y has now been converted into a canal, and partly filled up.
The new canal, the direction of which is marked in the map be¬
tween pp. 212,213, is about 15 M. in length, 65-110 yds. in width,
and 22-26 ft. in depth. Its level is about 20 inches below the
mean level of the water at Amsterdam. Three huge gates, com¬
pleted in 1872, one of them 24 yds. and each of the other two
12 yds. in width, protect the W. entrance of the canal against the
incursion of the sea. The piers which shelter the entrance are ^M.
in length. The canal was opened for traffic on 1st Nov. 1876, and
in August 1877 the passage was practicable for the largest and
most heavy-laden vessels. The whole outlay, including the cost
of a protecting dyke at the E. end, near the village of Schel¬
lingwoude (see p. 276), amounted to 35,000,000 fl., of which
6,000,000 fl. were contributed by the city of Amsterdam and up¬
wards of 10,000,000 fl. defrayed by the sale of reclaimed land (at
an average price of 1200 fl. per acre), while the remainder is borne
Near the locks lies Ymuiden (Hdtel Willem Barendsz, with cafe-
restaurant) , with 1500 inhab., a place which has sprung into existence
since the formation of the canal. — Steamboats ('Dolphijn', 'Stad Pur-
merend') ply four times daily from Amsterdam to Ymuiden (Sat. twice
only), starting from the Westerhoofd (PL C, 1) and making the trip in
l3/i hr. (fares 60, 40 c.; there and back 1 fl., 60 c). Intermediate sta-