Jewish Quarter. AMSTERDAM. 40. Route. 273
popularly called the 'Artis' (being the property of the society 'Natura
Artis Magistra'), near the Botanic Garden, is one of the finest in
Europe, and scarcely inferior to that of London. The chief objects
of interest may be seen in 2-3 hrs; guide unnecessary.
The Entrance (p. 252) is in the Kerk Laan (PI. G, H, 3). To the
left are the camels, lamas, and stags; behind are the singing-birds, the
parrot-gallery, and the Reptile House, which contains large serpents and
other reptiles, including specimens of the Cryptobranchus Japonicus, a
very rare variety of salamander.
The arrangements for fish-breeding, also in this part of the garden,
are interesting (in winter and spring only). Many thousands of salmon
and trout are bred here and annually set free in the Dutch rivers. Close
by is the Monkey House. — Beyond the ponds, which are covered with
sea-fowl, are different varieties of cattle and sheep, and on the 13ft, the
large Carnivora House, adjoined by that of the Elephants. — Proceeding
hence past the Antelope, Giraffe , and Zebra House, we reach the Eagle
and Vulture House, the Buffalo Shed, and the Hippopotamus House. In
the N.E. angle is a large grotto with a basin of water, fitted up in 1877
for the reception of a pair of sea-lions. The large building to the right
of the entrance is the new Society-House, with a large hall ("Restaurant;
D., l'/s fl. or upwards, from 4 to 7 p.m, a la carte from 12; not open
before 10 a.m.). The older building farther on in the same part of the
gardens contains a collection of stuffed animals and skeletons in the
upper story. Then an Ethnological Museum, containing Chinese, Japanese,
and Indian curiosities, and a valuable library. Also a collection of sea¬
weeds and corals. A large Aquarium has recently been constructed, at a
cost of 400,000 fl.
The Hospice of St. James (PL 53; H, 3, 4), a large building
on the Middellaan, to the S., is an asylum for aged poor of the
Roman Catholic faith. — Adjacent is the new Panorama, contain¬
ing a large painting by P. Tetar van Elven, representing the siege
of Haarlem by the Spaniards in 1572-73.
To the E. of the town, outside the Muider Poort (PL I, 3), the
only one of the ancient city-gates still existing, is situated the
extensive Eastern Cemetery of Amsterdam, 1/%M. beyond which is
the Linnaeus Garden (see p. 275).
In returning from the E. quarters of the town towards the Dam
we may proceed through the Jewish Quarter (PL F, G, 4), the
ill-conditioned character of which presents a marked contrast to the
Dutch cleanliness of the rest of the city. Brokers' shops and marine
stores abound in these squalid purlieus, where faces and costumes of
an Oriental type will frequently be observed. The Jews form one-
ten th of the population of Amsterdam, and possess ten Synagogues.
The largest is that of the Portuguese Jews (PL 67; G, 4) in the
Muiderstraat, erected in 1670, and said to be an imitation of the
Temple of Solomon ; it possesses a large number of costly vessels.
After the expulsion of the Portuguese Jews from their native country
in the first half of the 17th cent. , they sought an asylum at Am¬
sterdam, where complete religious toleration was accorded to them.
Many German Jews also , in order to escape from the persecutions
to which they were subjected in their own country, flocked to Amster¬
dam, which they regarded almost as a second Jerusalem. Baruch
Spinoza, the father of modern philosophy, born at Amsterdam in
RATf.meKFB's B»j7jima--ang Holland 6th Edit. IS