xxvi Railways. HOLLAND.
V. Picture Galleries and Collections.
Picture Galleries and Collections are generally open from
10 a.m. till 3 or 4 p.m. — In all collections belonging to the state
gratuities are forbidden; sticks and umbrellas must be given up
at the door, but no charge is made for taking care of them. These
last remarks do not apply to municipal collections. The usual
gratuity at private collections is 1 fl.
Most of the Temarks made with regard to Belgian railways apply
to the Dutch also, except that the fares in Holland are considerably
higher. In 1878 there were about 675 M. of government, and 345
M. of private lines in use.
The best railway, steamboat, and diligence time-tables are
contained in Van Santen's Officieele Reisgids voor Nederland,
published monthly (with map, price 20 cents). The hours of de¬
parture of the fast trains (1st and 2nd class) are printed in Italics;
v. (vertrek) means departure, and a. (aankomst) arrival. To change
carriages is overstappen.
VII. Dutch Characteristics.
Towns. Most of the Dutch towns, especially those in Noord-
Holland, Zuid-Holland, Friesland, and Groningen, as well as the
open country, are intersected in every direction by canals (Grachten),
which are generally enlivened with numerous barges. The different
quarters of the towns are connected by means of drawbridges
(ophaalbruggen), now being replaced , however, by swing-bridges
(draaibruggen). The roads and streets skirting the canals are
usually planted with trees, which render them shady and picturesque.
The Dutch houses are generally lofty and narrow, and construct¬
ed of red brick and white cement. The beams occasionally seen pro¬
jecting from the gables are used for hoisting up goods to the lofts,
which are used as magazines. The windows of the ground-floor
being generally of ample dimensions, and polished with the
scrupulous care which characterises the Dutch of all classes, the
houses present a far more cheerful and prosperous appearance than
is usual in large towns. At the cellar-doors in the side-streets,
sign-boards with the words 'water en vuur te koop'1 (water and fire
to sell) are frequently observed. At these humble establishments
boiling-water and red-hot turf are sold to the poorer classes for the
preparation of their tea or coffee. Many of the houses and public
buildings are considerably out of the perpendicular, a circum¬
stance due to the soft and yielding nature of the ground on which
In many Dutch towns the custom prevails of affixing bulletins
to the doors of houses in which persons are sick, in order that their