son, Leopold of Saxe-Coburg was next selected by the congress, and
that prince accordingly ascended the throne on 21st July, 1831.
The treaty of the intervening powers, signed at London on 15th
Nov., 1831, by the representatives of the five great powers and of
Belgium , although not finally recognised by the exasperated King
of Holland till 1839, constituted the Kingdom of Belgium one of
the independent European states, and determined the boundaries
and the relations between the two disunited kingdoms.
King Leopold II., born in 1835, the son of Leopold I. (b. 1790,
d. 1865) and of Louise, his second consort, daughter of Louis Phi¬
lippe (d. 1850), ascended the throne on 10th Dec., 1865. His
Queen is Marie Henriette, daughter of the late Archduke Joseph.
The royal family consists of the Princesses Louise (b. 1858; mar¬
ried in 1875 to Prince Philip of Saxe-Coburg) , Stephanie (b. 1864 ;
betrothed to Rudolph, Crown Prince of Austria), and Clementine
(b. 1872). Leopold, the only son (b. 1859), died at the age of ten.
The Count of Flanders (b. 1845), who is married to a German
Princess, is the King's brother. Charlotte, the widow of Maximilian,
Emp. of Mexico (d. 1867), is a sister of Leopold II.
Extent. The extreme length of the kingdom, fromN.W. toS.E.,
is 179 Engl. M., breadth from N. to S. 110 M., area 11,235 sq. M.
Population (in 1878) 5,476,668 (in 1831, 3,785,864 only), of
whom about 2y2 millions are Flemings, and about 2 millions Wal¬
loons. The Roman Catholic religion is greatly predominant, about
15,000 only of the population being Protestants, and 3000 Jews;
and of these two sects more than half are resident in the provinces
of Antwerp and Brabant. In East Flanders, the most densely peopled
district, there are 760 inhab. to each sq. M., while in the Province
of Luxembourg, the most thinly peopled, there are 128 only. E.
Flanders, and next to it the Provinces of Brabant and Hainault,
are, with the exception of some of the manufacturing districts of
England, among the most densely peopled districts in the world.
Provinces. The country is divided into nine provinces, viz.
Antwerp, Brabant, W. Flanders, E. Flanders, Hainault, Liege,
Limburg, Luxembourg, and Namur. In W. Flanders one person in
8 is a pauper, in E. Flanders one in 16, in Hainault one in 20, in
Limburg one in 24, in Liege one in 28 , in Brabant one in 36 , in
Antwerp one in 41, in Namur one in 91 , and in the wooded Pro¬
vince of Luxembourg one in 660 only. On the other hand there are
eight persons only in the whole Province of Luxembourg who are
qualified to become senators, i.e. who pay taxes to the amount of
2116 fr. and upwards, and aTe above 40 years of age, while in
Brabant the number of such persons amounts to 91.
Clergy. The number of the Roman Catholic secular clergy is
about 5750, that is, one on an average for every 950 of the pop¬
ulation, each of whom receives an average stipend of upwards of
700 fr. from the state; the number of the regular clergy is about 3000.