Temple. ABU-SIMBEL. 48. Route. 375
S. (left) Wall (PI. g). At the top are five reliefs : 1. The king
before Ammon; 2. The king kneeling under the sacred tree of
Heliopolis, before Harmakhis; Thout and Sefkhet stand close by;
3. The king offers incense to Ptah; 4. The king dedicates four rows
of packages; 5. The king before a ram-headed god and a lion-
headed goddess. Beneath are three large warlike scenes. The first
(to the left) represents the king in his chariot at the storm of a
Syrian fortress. The defenders on the battlements are pierced with
his arrows and sue for mercy. Beneath, a herdsman flees with his
herd towards the town. Above the king hovers his guardian-goddess
Nekhbet, in the form of a vulture, and behind him are his three
sons Amen-her-khopshef, Ramses, and Ra-her-wnamf, in chariots.
The second picture exhibits the king on foot, treading upon a pro¬
strate enemy, and piercing a Libyan with a lance so that his blood
gushes forth. The third picture exhibits the triumphal return of
the king from battle. His chariot is preceded by two rows of cap¬
tured negroes, clad in skins and wearing caps of straw or reeds.
Beside the chariot is the king's lion, which accompanied him in
N. (right) Wall (PI. ft). The subject on this wall is the Battle of
Qadesh, the culminating event in the Hittite war, with which we
have already become acquainted in the Ramesseum (p. 278), and at
Luxor, Karnak, and Abydos.
In the Lower Half of the representation we see first the march of the
Egyptian army, which consists of infantry and charioteers; then (between
the doors to Rooms K and L), the Egyptian camp, with the shields of the
soldiers arranged round it in a kind of stockade. The bustle of the camp
is represented with great vivacity: the unharnessed horses receiving their
fodder, the resting soldiers, the camp-followers, etc.; to the right is the
royal tent. The third picture shows the king on his throne, holding a
council of war with his officers, in consequence of the confession of two
hostile spies that the enemy is lurking close by, behind the fortress of
Qadesh. To the right stands the king's chariot; below are the royal
body-guard and the two spies of the Kheta prince, who are being compel¬
led by blows to yield their secret. In the last scene (to the right) the
chariots of the Egyptians and Hittites are already engaged in battle.
The scenes in the Upper Half transport us to the midst of the fight.
To the left the king dashes in his chariot against his enemies, who have
surrounded him in their chariots; he launches his arrows against them.
In the centre is the fortress of Qadesh, surrounded by the Orontes. Its
defenders watch the fight from the battlements. To the extreme right is
the king in his chariot, inspecting his officers, who count the severed
hands, etc. of the enemy and bring fettered prisoners.
Rear (W.) Wall. To the right (N.) of the central door is Ramses II.
leading two rows of captured Hittites before Harmakhis, the deified
Ramses, and the lion-headed Wert-hekaw; to the left (S.) he leads two
rows of negroes before Ammon, the deified Ramses, and Mut.
Between the two last (S.) pillars is an interesting Stele of the 35th year
of Ramses II., on which, beneath a relief of the king smiting his enemies
in presence of Ptah-Tetenen, is a long inscription, describing in florid
terms the king's victory over the Hittites and recording that Ramses
erected large edifices for Ptah of Memphis and presented rich gifts to him.
This decree was repeated almost word for word by Ramses III. on the
pylon of the temple of Medinet Habu (p. 292).