to Abu-Simbel. TOSHKEH. 47. Route. 371
most northerly, bear reliefs and inscriptions. The first (on the S.)
was constructed in the reign of Thutmosis III. by Nehi, governor
of Ethiopia, and was dedicated to Horus, lord of Mem, and to Satet,
mistress of Nubia. On the right wall is a much damaged relief of
Nehi presenting tribute from the S. land to the king. In the recess
in the rear-wall Thutmosis III. sits between Horus and Satet. —
Immediately to the left is the second chapel (about 10 ft. deep),
much less skilfully executed, in which appear ten persons before
Ramses II. Among these are Setaw, governor of Ethiopia, and a
number of scribes and officials.
The third chapel, which lies a little higher up, dates from the
reign of Thutmosis III. and was dedicated to the same gods as the
first chapel. The recess contains the somewhat roughly executed
figures of four seated personages; to the right the king and Satet,
to the left the king and Horus, lord of Mem. — The fourth chapel
is the most important. It belongs to Amenophis II., who appears
conducted by Horus, lord of Beheni (Wadi Haifa), to a row of gods
including Khnum, Satet, and Anukis, the gods of the cataracts,
and Horus, Hathor, and Nekhbet. In the recess is the statue of
the king, embraced by Horus of Mem (on the right) and by Satet
(on the left). — To the S. of Kasr Ibrim a few steles are found,
one showing a victorious king in his war-chariot.
The mountains presently retire, leaving room for a strip of culti¬
vated land. Numerous Sdkiyehs or water-wheels are seen. To the
left (E.) appears the village of Djimeneh, beside a pretty wood.
Farther on, on the same bank, lies Toshkeh (Nubian 'Three Moun¬
tains'), a small place among palms, with a somewhat uncivilized
population. At Toshkeh el-Gharb, on the W. bank, 7 M. from the
river, a large force of dervishes was defeated with the loss of their
cannon by the British on Aug. 3rd, 1889; several thousand slain
were left on the battle-field, and their weapons and clothing were
sold by the neighbouring natives.
The district we next enter upon is very monotonous and almost
uninhabited; and navigation is rendered difficult by rocks. To the
left lie Gurgundi and three shekhs' tombs; then the villages of Debut
and Feraig. The river-bed becomes very wide at places. On the
right we catch sight of the colossi that guard the temple of Abu-
3372 M. Abu-Simbel, on the W. bank.
48. The Rock Temples of Abu-Simbel.
Cook's tourist-steamers halt at Abu-Simbel for an afternoon and even
ing on the return-voyage.
The two temples of Abu-Simbel ('Father of the Ear of Corn')
lie a short distance apart at the foot of a precipitous cliff close to the
W. bank of the Nile. No other temple in Egypt produces so unex-