358 Route 45. BET EL-WALLI.
worthy than the large Roman erection at Kalabsheh. The way to
it leads along the verge of the mountain, level at first, but finally
ascends steeply. The temple, founded under Ramses II., consists
of a Vestibule, of which only the side walls so far as they were
formed by the rock are now standing, a colonnaded hall hewn in the
rock, and a small sanctuary, adjoining the latter. In the vestibule our
interest is excited by the warlike scenes representing the king's
victories over the Libyans and Syrians (right wall) and over the
Ethiopians (left wall).
Reliefs on the Right Wall, beginning to the left. We here see
King Ramses II. enthroned beneath a canopy, with his lion at his feet.
His son Amen-her-khopshef leads three Semitic prisoners to him (upper
row) and his grandees pay him homage (lower row). — In the next scene
the king smites a Libyan with a sickle-shaped sword, while his dog seizes
the foe. — The third relief shows the king in his chariot, dashing against
the fleeing Syrians; he has seized two of the foes by the hair and raises
his sword for the fatal stroke, while two other captives are bound to his
chariot. — In the fourth relief the king appears before a hostile fortress;
on the battlements are men and women suing for mercy (notice the wo¬
man holding her child by the arm) ; the king seizes one of the enemy by
the hair to kill him; below, one of the royal princes is beating in the
doors with an axe. In the last scene the Pharaoh stands upon two pro¬
strate enemies, grasping three others (Syrians) by the hair, while a prince
leads fettered prisoners before him.
Reliefs on the Left Wall. We again see the king under a canopy,
here receiving the spoils of the captured Ethiopians (in two rows). In
the upper row Prince Amen-her-wnamf points to a table adorned with
flowers, from which hang rings and skins; next is Amenemopet, governor
of Ethiopia, being adorned with chains as a reward; farther on are rings
of gold, chairs, elephants' tusks, weapons, fans, and other articles brought
as tribute; negroes approach with their offerings (cattle, antelopes, a lion,
etc.). In the lower row are three Egyptian grandees before the king;
then below them, Amenemopet, the governor; behind them are two
fettered negroes, after whom come negroes with offerings (monkeys, pan¬
thers, giraffes, cattle, ostriches) and women with their children (one car¬
rying her child in a basket on her back). — In the second relief the king
appears in his chariot dashing against the negro foe, followed by Prince
Amen-her-wnamf (above) and Prince Kha-em-weset (below), each in his
chariot. The negroes flee to their village, which lies among dum-palms.
A wounded negro is led by two comrades to his wife and children, while
another woman crouches over a fire and cooks a meal.
The vestibule was covered with a brick vaulted roof in Christian
times, forming nave and aisles, and was probably used as a church.
Three doors lead hence into the Hypostyle Hall, which was hewn
in the rock. The frame of the central and highest, is rounded at the
top ; the smaller doors to the right and left were obviously not made
until after the wall had been covered with sculptures. The ceiling
of the hall is borne by two fluted columns, each with four perpen¬
dicular faces on which were inscriptions. On the Entrance Wallihe
king appears smiting one of the N. barbarians (on the left) and a negro
(on the right). On the left pillar the king is embraced by Horus of
Mem, on the right pillar by Atum of Heliopolis. On the Left Wall
the king offers incense to Horus of Beheni (Wadi Haifa) and to an
Isis (with a scorpion on her head); behind the king is Anukis. On
the Right Wall Ramses II. proffers wine to Khnum and Satet, the