KUFT. 23. Route. 223
The roofs of the Sanctuary and of the second antechamber lie higher
than the above-mentioned terrace. A flight of steps ascends from the N.W.
of the terrace to the roof of the first antechamber and' thence to the still
higher roof of the smaller hypostyle hall. Thence another flight, the lower
part of which is destroyed, led to the roof of the pronaos.
Finally a walk round the outside of the temple will be found
interesting. The inscriptions and representations which cover the
exterior walls are now concealed by rubbish. The reliefs on the
E. and W. walls date from the reign of Nero and other Roman
emperors. The large scenes on the S. rear-wall show Ptolemy XVI.
Caesar, son of Julius Cssar, and his mother, Cleopatra, in pre¬
sence of the gods of Dendera. The faces are purely conventional,
and in no sense portraits. The projecting lions' heads on the sides
of the building were probably intended to carry off the rain-water.
To the right (N.E.) of the entrance to the temple of Hathor lies
the so-called Birth House, a small temple half buried in debris.
Similar 'Birth Houses' were erected beside all large temples of the
Ptolemaic period. They were dedicated to the worship of the sons of the
two deities revered in the main temple, in the present case to Har-sem-
tewe or Ehy, son of Horus of Edfu and Hathor. This 'Birth House1 was
built by Augustus and some of its reliefs were added by Trajan and Ha¬
drian. Round it ran a colonnade, with lotus - columns, the abaci of
which are adorned with figures of Bes, guardian deity of pregnant women.
The reliefs in the innermost chambers represent the birth and nursing of
the divine infant.
Behind the temple of Hathor (to the S.W.) is a Temple or
Isis, consisting of a vestibule and three chambers. The unattract¬
ive and uninteresting building, which is partly covered with rub¬
bish, owes its origin to the emperor Augustus.
23. From Keneh to Thebes (Luxor).
39 M. Steamboat in 5 hrs. The mail-steamer halts for 2 hrs. at
Keneh on Sun. and Thurs. mornings on its upward voyage, and crosses
thence to Dendera. — Railway in about 1 hr. (see p. 180).
Keneh, see p. 217. The steamer passes three islands. On the
W. bank lies the village of Ballds, with clay-deposits from which
most of the 'Keneh pottery' is made (p. 217). Balalis (pi. of Ballas,
named after the village), Kulal(pl. of Kulle), and other kinds of jars,
some of considerable size, lie on the banks awaiting shipment. This
village is situated in the district known to the Greeks as Typhonia
('dedicated to Typhon', i.e. Set).
422i/2 M>. (from Cairo) Bartid (E. bank; mail-steamer station).
To the E., li/2 M. inland, is Kuft, the ancient Koptos (railway
station). Though now of no importance, this place was down to the
time of the Khalifs a populous and thriving trading-town. To the
S.E. of the modern town lay the ancient city, with a temple of
Min, the ruins of which were excavated in 1894 by Flinders Petrie.
Koptos (Egypt. Qebtoyu) was in antiquity the starting-point of the
great caravan-routes through the Arabian Desert to the seaports on the
Red Sea, the chief of which in the Graeco-Roman period were Bcrenike