220 Route 22. DENDERA. Temple
ice and covered, like the rest of the walls, with reliefs. In the centre
is a door leading to the —
Hypostyle Hall, the roof of which is supported by six columns,
with elaborate foliage - capitals on which heads of Hathor also
appear. Eight square apertures in the ceiling admit the light.
Four rows of reliefs on the walls exhibit the king sacrificing to the
gods of Dendera or celebrating sacred rites. In this and all the
following rooms of the temple, with the exception of the second
store-room to the left of this hall and the Crypts (p. 221), the car¬
touches of the king are left empty, probably because the priests
were in doubt as to which ruler should be selected for honour in
the unsettled times during which the temple was built.
Some of the Reliefs in the lower row, representing the ceremonies
performed by the king at the foundation of a temple, deserve notice. To
the right of the Entrance (PI. g): the king, wearing the crown of Lower
Egypt, quits his palace, preceded by a priest offering incense; to the left
the king cleaves the earth with a hoe on the site of the temple — turns
the first sod, as we should express it —; in front of him is the goddess
Hathor. — To the left of the Entrance (PI. h): the king, with the crown
of Upper Egypt, quits his palace (as above); to the right he presents
Hathor with bricks, representing the building-material for the new temple.
On each side of this hall are three Chamb'ers, used as laboratory,
treasury, and store-rooms for the sacrificial incense, etc. The in¬
scriptions and representation refer to the particular articles which
were stored in each room. These rooms, except the laboratory and
treasury, which are quite dark, were lighted by apertures in the roof.
The doors that originally afforded exit from the temple are built up.
We next enter the First Antechamber, which is lighted by
apertures in the roof and walls, and is decorated with four rows of
mural reliefs. The latter represent the king worshipping, etc.
in presence of Hathor and the other deities of Dendera. The gifts
for the goddess were perhaps offered by the priests in this room.
To the right and left are passages, leading to the staircases which
ascend to the roof of the temple (p. 222). On the left also is a
small chamber probably used for some religious rite.
The Second Antechamber, which we next enter, is lighted
by means of apertures in the side-walls, and has four rows of re¬
presentations on the walls. A door to the left opens into a room
used as a Wardrobe, in which perfumes were preserved as well as
the sacred wreaths and garments with which the images of the gods
were embellished at festivals.
The corresponding door on the right side of the hall leads to
three connected Rooms, which to a certain extent form a special
enclosed sanctuary, within the large temple. We see here first a
small store-room, connected by a Corridor (PI. i) with the W. stair¬
case (p. 222). Thence we enter an open Court, beyond which is a
charming Kiosque, supported by two Hathor-columns and approached
by seven steps. Here the preliminary celebration for the chief func¬
tion at Dendera, the great new year's festival, was conducted with