of Hathor. DENDERA. 22. Route. 219
reigns of Thutmosis IH. and Sethos I. ; but we cannot' refuse our
admiration even to these products of later Egyptian art.
'The rubbish round the temple reaches to the balustrades be¬
tween the columns in front and nearly to the roof on the E. side;
•hence the floor of the temple appears sunken and is reached by a
flight of steps. Originally, however, the temple stood level with the
ground, and its present appearance, like that of the temples of
Esneh and Edfu, is due to the accumulated rubbish of centuries.
We first enter the Great Vestibule, or Pronaos, which has
24 columns with heads of Hathor (p. cxiii). At the top of the
facade is a huge concave eornice, in the middle of which is the
On the upper edge of the cornice is the following Greek inscription
of three lines: 'Titep AuTOiepaTopos TtPeploo Kalaapo; Ntiou Sefjairtou 8eoG
Xepaatou 0l0' ^n' A&Xou AoiXXtoo OXcixxoo ^ycC-ovo? xal AoXou 4>o>Xoulou
Kptaitoo !7iiaTpaT:fj"roo Sapatttuivo? Tpov/iM-Poo otparnyouvTO'; ol alio xfjc M-i)-
TpoitiXeuj? xal tou vou.oO to rtp6vaov'A<ppo8elT7]i 0e5i ueflarTH xal toTs ouv-
vrfoic fteoT?. L [ ... TiP|eploo Ka(s«po|? ... ]. — For / behoof of J the Em¬
peror Tiberius, the young Augustus, son of the divine Augustus, under the prefect
Aulus Avillius Flaccus, the governor Aulus Fulvius Crispus, and the district
governor Sarapion, son of Trychambos, the inhabitants of the capital and of
the nome dedicated the Pronaos to the great goddess Aphrodite and her fellow
gods, in the .... year of the Emp. Tiberius . . . .'
The «xterior front of the hall is enclosed by six balustrades be¬
tween the columns in the first row. Between the central pair of
columns is a door, half the height of the columns. The interior
walls of the pronaos are decorated with four rows of representations.
These depict the ruler (in succession the Roman emperors Augus¬
tus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero) advancing with votive
offerings for Hathor and. the other gods worshipped in the temple.
The reliefs on the balustrades between the columns (PI. a-f) refer
to the entrance of the ruler into the sanctuary and to the ceremony
of incense, to which he must submit in the first chamber.
Beliefs on the Balustbades. To the right of the Entrance (PI. a,
b, c). In awe see the king, wearing the crown of Lower Egypt, quitting
the palace, followed by his guardian-spirit and preceded by a priest offer¬
ing incense. In b the hawk-headed Horus and the ibis-headed Thout
sprinkle the king with the symbols of life; in c the goddesses of the south
and of the north bestow blessings upon the king. To the left is a relief:
the king is conducted before Hathor by the gods Mont of Thebes and
Atum of Heliopolis. — The representations on PI. e, d, t, to the left of
the entrance, are similar, except that in d the king wears the crown of
The sculptured Ornamentations on the Ceiling are also interesting.
They are divided by the columns into seven bands, running from end
to end of the Pronaos, and refer to astronomical subjects. 1st Band (to
the extreme left). Newt, goddess of the sky; beneath her are pictures of
the Zodiac and boats with personifications of the stars. 2nd Band. Dei¬
ties of Uie stars and the Hours of the day and night. 3rd Band. Phases
of the Moon and the course of the Sun during the 12 hours of the day.
4th Band (in the centre). Flying vultures and sun-discs. Bands 5-7 repeat
the scenes in Bands 1-3.
The large hall had also two side-exits, now built up. — The S.
wall is interrupted by a wide portal, surmounted by a hollow corn-