Necropolis. ABYDOS. 20. Route. 21 5
relief recalling the admirable sculptures under Sethos I.; the ruder
reliefs 'en creux' make their appearance only in the court and the
first hall. The subjects of the reliefs are uninteresting except those
in the first court that represent a gTand procession.
On the right (N.) wall peasants are shown bringing oxen, antelopes,
geese, and other animals to four priests, of whom *he first records the
gifts, while the second offers incense. On the left (S.) wall are similar
scenes. To the left as We enter are persons with sacrificial gifts, who are
met by a procession of priests, soldiers, with the royal war-chariot, captive
negroes, etc. The colouring of the figures is surprisingly well preserved.
On the outside of the temple, N. side, is an inscription relating to
the war waged by Ramses II. against the Hittites; unfortunately only the
lower parts of lines are preserved. Adjacent are representations of events
in the war, similar to those of the Ramesseum at Thebes (pp. 278, 279).
The exterior of the S. wall is covered with a long inscription, recount¬
ing the building of the temple and its endowments.
To the N. of the Temple of Ramses II., near the village of El-
Kherbeh, are the ruins of the ancient city and of a Shrine of Osiris,
dating back to the 12th Dynasty. This perhaps contained the famous
grave of Osiris, though all traces of the tomb have vanished. All
these temples were situated in the Necropolis of Abydos, of which
three sections are distinguished. That farthest to the S., in which
lie the temples of Sethos I. and Ramses II., contains tombs of the
New Empire. To the N. of this rises a Mil, with tombs dating from
the close of the Ancient Empire. Still farther to the N., between
the temple of Osiris and the fortress of Shunet ez-Zebib, are the
tombs of the Middle Empire, many in the form of small brick pyra¬
mids. This third necropolis contains tombs also of the 18th, 19th, and
20th Dyn., and of the later period. — Farther to the W. lies a small
fort, surrounded by two walls (the outer wall the lower), named
Shunet ez-Zebib, which probably served as a place of defence
against the incursions of the Beduins from the W. A Coptic Con¬
vent (more like a village) to the N.E. of this point, dating from the
year 1306 of the Coptic era, scarcely repays a visit.
T,he rubbish-mounds in the desert, l>/s» M. to the W. of the temple
of Sethos I., called by the Arabs Umm el-Goi'ab ('mother of pots'), contain
tombs of kings of the earliest Egyptian dynasties. They were explored
in 1896 by Amelineau.
Near the village of Ghabat, to the S. of Abydos, is an ancient quarry,
with an inscription of Nektanebos, in whose reign it was exhausted.
21. From Beli&neh to Keneh (Dendera).
Comp. Map, p. 184.
Between Belianeh and (59 M.) Keneh the Dum Palm (Hy-
phama thebaica) becomes more and more common and increases
in size and beauty as we travel southwards (comp. p. lxxii). It is a
fan-leaved palm of moderate height, dividing into two parts at the
upper end of the stem and sometimes repeating this bifurcation
two or three times. It extends far to the S. of Egypt, and whole
forests of it are found on the upper Nile. Its large nuts contain
a soft and fibrous pulp, which is edible and tastes like sweet