of Cairo. SAKKARA. 4. Route. 387
removed, the most interesting, and after that of Ti the best pre¬
served, is the —
Mastaba of Ptahhotep, which lies a little to the W. of the
path from the step-pyramid to M. Mariette's house.
Ptahhotep, like Ti, lived in the 5th Dynasty, and was a priest of the
Pyramids of Aser, Ra-en-user, and the 'divine dwelling of Men-kau-Hor'.
He also bore a number of other titles. The best portrait of him is on
the E. wall. His costume is similar to that of Ti (p. 334). His young
son, with the lock denoting infancy, is holding his staff with his right
hand and a hoopoe in his left. The visitor should observe the harvest
of the papyrus plant, and the games which were probably connected with
the vintage festival. The grapes are being plucked, trodden, and pressed.
A hunting scene lower down is full of humour and life, and some of the
animals will interest zoologists. Most of the hounds are 'slughi' (p. 384).
The attack and slaughter of the gazelle is a very spirited scene. Ptah¬
hotep also indulges in lion-hunting. A lion is represented seizing in its
jaws the muzzle of a cow tied up as a bait, and fastening its claws into
the animal's neck, while the calf stands behind its mother, and the
kneeling hunter with his two hounds points out to them the lion on
which he is about to let them loose. The fishing and fowling scenes are
particularly well executed. Another successful representation on the
same wall is the procession of the retainers of Ptahhotep bearing offerings
from the different villages on his estates. Like the modern processions
of pilgrims at Cairo, this cortege is headed by pugilists and prize¬
fighters. Captive lions and other smaller wild animals are being carried
in cages, and the master of the dogs is leading his greyhounds and an¬
other kind of hound resembling a hyena. Next follow mountain-goats,
antelopes, and oxen. A cow is calving with the aid of a veterinary sur¬
geon, and a number of calves on the ground are struggling violently to
disengage themselves from the cords with which they are bound. After
these come flocks of poultry. If the inscriptions are to be believed, Ptah¬
hotep possessed 121,000 geese of one kind and 11,210 of another, 1225
swans, 120,000 small geese, 121,022 pigeons, and 111,200 goslings. Among
the domestic poultry are included cranes, which their keeper brings be¬
fore his master, counted, and in good order. Ptahhotep, sitting on a
throne, wearing a panther skin, and anointing himself with oil, surveys
the rich produce of his estates, watches the slaughter of his cattle, ap¬
proves of the order kept by his clerks, and listens to the music of harps
and flutes. The list is exceedingly instructive owing to the distinctness
of the determinative symbols which accompany the carefully written
words. This mastaba also contains a false door, bearing a representation
of the entranee to a tomb as a symbol, on the W. wall.
The Mastaba of Sabu, to the E. of that of Ti, contains similar
representations, and an enumeration of the various kinds of cattle
possessed by the deceased.
Of one kind of cattle he possessed 405, of another 1237, and of a third
1300; of calves 1220 of one kind, and 1138 of another. Besides these he
had 1308 antelopes, 1135 gazelles, 1244 goats of a species resembling the
antelope, and 1010 herons. The poultry (geese, ducks, and pigeons) is
reckoned by thousands I I = 1000
After having visited the Necropolis, the traveller may, if time
permit, proceed to the 'Mastaba Far'iin', which belongs to the S.
group of Sakkara, a ride of l'^hr. to the S. of M. Mariette's house.
We pass the step-pyramid, as well as all the tombs to the W. of
it, on the left. Exactly in a line with the step-pyramid, parallel