282 Route 3. CAIRO. Tombs of the Khalifs.
sanatory virtues, in which those who drink the discoloured water
The adjacent tomb is that of Sultan Farag, Barkiik's son and
Farag (1399-1 i 12) had scarcely ascended the throne (20th June, 1399),
as a boy of thirteen years of age, before the Osmans began to threaten the
Syrian dominions of the Egyptian empire; and Timur (Tamerlane), in his
war against the Osmans, shortly afterwards defeated the Syrian emirs, who
had opposed him, near Aleppo. Farag himself thereupon headed a cam¬
paign against Timur, and proceeded victoriously as far as Damascus : but
owing to dissensions among his emirs he was obliged to return to Cairo
and leave Syria to its fate. After the defeat of the Turks under Bajesid
by the Mongols under Timur at the battle of Angora, Farag was com¬
pelled to enter into negociations with Timur, and he is even said to
have sent him Egyptian coins bearing the 3Iongolian conqueror's name
in token of his subjection. The death of Timur, however (18th Dec.
1403), saved Egypt from the risk of being conquered by the 3Iongols.
The latter years of Farag's reign were constantly disturbed by the re¬
bellions of bis emirs, particularly Shekh el-3fahmudi 3Iuaiyad (see p. 270).
He was at. length compelled by the insurgents to capitulate at Damascus,
whither he had proceeded with his army, and was executed (31ay, 1412).
The third tomb contains the remains of a brother of Farag, who
reigned seventy days only. The S. Mausoleum (PL 13) contains
the tombs of the female members of the family. The *Mimbar
(PI. 6), in hard limestone, one of the most beautiful existing
specimens of Arabian sculpture, was presented by Kait Bey
(p. 266). The *Minarcts, with their three galleries (besides the
balconies below them), are borne by pendent cornices.
The symmetrical plan of the edifice, its massive masonry, and
the symmetrical disposition of the rows of pilasters with domes,
constitute this mosque one of the most perfect examples of Arabian
architecture in existence; and, notwithstanding its ruinous con¬
dition, it still presents a most imposing appearance.
To the W. (right) of this tomb-mosque is the Tomb of Sultan
Suleman, containing interesting sculpture in the, dome and in¬
scriptions in fayence, now partially destroyed. To the E. of this
tomb (and to the S. of Barkuk's mosque) is another handsome dome-
covered tomb, the founder of which is unknown ; and there are other
interesting dome-structures of various forms, carefully executed,
but. of uncertain origin. Adjoining the mausoleum of Suleman is
the tomb of the Seb'a Bendt (seven maidens). The dome, with its
pendentives , is of a very elongated form , and differs considerably
from those of the neighbouring mausolea, being more similar to
those of the so-called Mameluke tombs (p. 313).
Opposite the last-named tomb, to the E. (left), is the Tomb-
Mosque of Burshey (Bcrisbai), completed in 1431.
Bursbey (1422-38), who had for a time been the vicegerent of a young
smi of Tatar, ascended the throne on 1st April, 1422. After having de¬
feated some of his rebellious vassals, he determined to attack Cyprus,
one of the chief hotbeds of piracy. In the course of the third of his ex¬
peditions he succeeded in capturing Janus, King of Cyprus, whom he
carried in triumph to Cairo. On paying a ransom of 200,000 denarii, arid
promising to pay the sultan an annual tribute, he was sent back to Cvprus