270 Route 3. CAIRO. Gdm'a el-Muaiyad.
(PL 40; 'mosque of the girls'), which rises on the right. On the
left, a little beyond the mosque, and on the farther bank of the
canal, is the entrance to the house of Shekh Mufti, or Shekh ul-Isldm
(PL 95), the interesting interior of which is shown by special
permission only (p. 239). The street then runs on towards the N.,
in a straight direction, and terminates in the Muski, near the Hotel
du Nil (p. 229).
If we leave the Palace of Mansiir Pasha (see above) on the left,
and follow a lane leading to the S. E. (right) corner of the place
called after the old gate Bab el-Khalk, we reach after about 500
paces more the (left) old town-gate Bab ez-Zuweleh, built of solid
blocks of stone, and resembling the Bab el-Futuh (p. 278) in plan.
The S. side consists of two huge towers ; by that to the right are a
number of stone and wooden balls, probably dating from the Mame¬
luke period. Tuman Bey, the last of the Circassian sultans of Egypt,
was hanged outside this gate by Sultan Selim II., on 19th Rabi' el-
Awwel, 923 of the Hegira (15th April, 1517; p. 241). This gate
is also called Bab el-Mutawelli, from the old tradition that the most
highly revered saint Kutbf el-Mutawelli has his abode behind the
western gate, where he sometimes makes his presence known by a
gleam of light. A beggar who spends the day here endeavours, by
loudly invoking the saint, to excite the compassion of passers-by.
From the inner (E.) gate hang bunches of hair, teeth, shreds of
clothing, and other votive offerings placed here by sick persons
who hope thereby to be cured of their diseases.
Passing through the gate, we enter the street called Sukkariyeh
(p. 252), where on the left we observe the handsome portal of the
Gam'a el-Muaiyad (PI. 57), a mosque which is connected with the
gate of the city. The interior is undergoing restoration, and is,
therefore, not easily accessible. This mosque was erected by Sultan
Shekh el-Mahmudi Muaiyad (1412-21), of the dynasty of the
Circassian Mamelukes, who had once been the leader of the
rebellion against Sultan Farag (p. 282), and who had been defeated
by the sultan and imprisoned for a time at this spot. The edifice
is also known as the Gdm'a el-Ahmar, or the red mosque, from the
colour of its exterior.
Sulldn Shekh el-Mahmudi Muaiyad, after having defeated and executed
Sultan Farag, his predecessor, who was the son of Barkuk, the founder of the
t Kutb properly means pole or axis. This greatest of the Mohammedan
saints is so named because the other weli's, who are divided into three
classes (nakib, pi. nukaba; negib, pi. nugaba; bedil, pi. abdt'tl), are con¬
sidered, as' it were, to revolve round him. According to the generally
received belief of the Bluslims the favourite abode of this saint is on the
roof of the Ka'ba, but the Egyptians regard the Bab ez-Zuweleh as at
least his next most favoured dwelling-place, and therefore sometimes call
it the gate of El-JIutawelli, i.e. 'of the reigning kutb'. The tomb of
Seyyid Ahmed el-Bedawi (p. 224) is another resort of the kutb, who of
course can instantaneously transport himself from 3Iecca to' Cairo or
elsewhere at pleasure.