The Pig (Arab, khanzir), which was regarded by the ancient Egyptians
as the emblem of Typhon, and is considered unclean by the Arabs, can
hardly be called one of the domestic animals of Egypt, but it is kept by
the Greek tavern-keepers.
The Dog (Arab, kelb) throughout the whole of the East is a masterless
and half-wild animal. The usual breed resembles the jackal type, its
colour being of a light rusty tint. Every canine family has its regular
beat, from which intruders are rigorously excluded. Most of the Egyptian
dogs feed on street refuse.
The Cat (Arab, kott, kotteh), which was one of the sacred animals of
the ancient Egyptians"(com'p. p. 134), is now domesticated in almost every
Egyptian and Beduin family.
The Weasel (mustela semipalmata; Arab, 'ersa, or abu 'arus), is occa¬
sionally kept, like the cat, for the purpose of keeping in check the
mice of numerous kinds with which the country is infested. It is chiefly
met with in a half-wild condition in Central and Lower Egypt, in the
towns, farm-buildings, warehouses, and deserted dwellings.
Foremost among the various kinds of poultry kept by the Egyptians
is the domestic Hen (Arab, farkha; cock, dik), the usual breeds of which
are of small size. The artificial hatching establishments in Egypt are of
very ancient origin.
The Turkey (Arab, farkha rumi) is imported.
The domestic Goose (Arab, wuzzeh) is chiefly met with in Lower
and Central Egypt, but nowhere in large numbers. The Egyptian
Domestic Pigeon (Arab, hamdm) is very common throughout the Nile
Valley. The peasants erect large dovecots for these pigeons, which they
keep solely for the sake of the manure they yield.
II. Wild Animals. As there are no game-laws in Egypt, any one
provided with a license from the police to carry fire-arms is at liberty
to shoot anywhere and at any season , provided enclosed gardens be not
entered, and growing crops respected. Permission to shoot on Lake
Menzaleh, however, must be obtained from the farmer of the fishings,
an introduction to whom may easily be procured from the traveller's
consul at Cairo.
Tolerable guns and other requirements for the chasse may be pur¬
chased at Cairo (p. 233), but gunpowder is bad and dear. Sportsmen
who bring their own guns will find it very troublesome to clear them
at the custom-house.
One of the favourite objects of the chase is the Arabian Mountain
Goat (Ibex beden; Arab, beden or wa'al), which still frequents the
mountains between the Nile and the Red Sea.
Another inhabitant of the mountains is the 'Maned Sheep' (Oris trage-
laphus; Arab, kebsh el-md, or kebsh el-gebel), which is occasionally met
with among the rocky hills near Minyeh and in the neighbourhood of
A denizen of the plains between Cairo and Suez, and of the sand¬
hills and heights which bound the valley of the Nile and the oases, is
the Dorcas Gazelle (Antilope dorcas; Arab, ghazdl), particularly during
the dry and hot season.
On the Libyan side of the Nile, in the region of the Natron Lakes
and the Fayum, and the tract extending thence to the oases, occur also
the 'Spear Antelope' (Antilope leptoceros; Arab, abu-'l hardb) and the
Addax Antelope (Antilope addax; Arab, a'kas, or bakar el-wahsh), besides
which the Arabs mention a kind of 'Cow Antelope' (perhaps the Antilope
The Wild Boar (Arab. halWf) now occurs in a few districts only in
the Delta and the Fayum.
In similar localities the sportsman will also meet with the Marsh
Lynx (Felis chaus; Arab, tifah), the small-footed Wild Cat (Felis manictt-
lata; Arab, kott), the Egyptian Wolf (Canis variegatus; Arab, d'tb), and
the Ichneumon' (Herpestes ichneumon; Arab, nims), which last, however,
prefers gardens and the neighbourhood of farms and villages.
The Genet (Yiverra genetta; Arab, kott zebdd) is said to be met with