powers represented by consuls, that mixed tribunals should be appointed,
consisting of courts of first and second instance, for the trial of all cases
arising between natives and foreigners, or between foreigners of different
nationalities, in accordance with Egyptian law, founded on that of
France and Italy. Cases in which the Khedive himself and the Egyptian
government are concerned are also tried before this new tribunal, so
that the system of appeals, formerly so much abused, is now done away
with. The courts of the first instance were established at Alexandria,
Cairo, and Isma'iliya, the last of which has recently been abolished.
The judges consist of natives and foreigners, the latter being elected by
the Khedive out of the qualified officials nominated by the great powers.
The appeal court at Alexandria is constituted in the same manner.
Some of the judges of the first instance are also chosen from members
of the smaller European states. These courts enjoy a constitutional
guarantee for the independence of their jurisdiction, and, so far as
necessary, they execute their judgments, both in civil and criminal
matters, by means of their own officers. The languages used are Arabic,
French, and Italian. — Besides these new courts, the consular and local
tribunals still continue to subsist, their juiisdiction being, however,
limited to criminal cases and to civil suits between foreigners of the
same nationality, provided the question does not affect laud. In due time,
it is hoped, the local courts will be organised so as to work in harmony
with the new mixed tribunals.
(5). Steamboats on the Mediterranean.
Alexandria, the chief seaport of Egypt, is regularly visited
by English, French, Austrian, Italian, Russian, and Egyptian
steamers, but the three last are inferior to the others, and are little
employed by ordinary travellers. Whether the traveller returns
westwards on leaving Egypt, or intends to proceed to Syria or else¬
where, it is important that he should be familiar with the principal
Those who purpose including Syria, Greece, and Constantinople in
their Oriental tour had better, before leaving home, write to the
'Administration des Services des Messagerics Maritimes, 16 Rue Cannebiere,
Marseilles'1 for a 'Livret des Lignes de la M6dilerranee et de la Mer Noire',
and also to the ' Verwaltungsrath der Dampfschifffahrtsgesellschaft des
Oesterreich-Ungarischen Lloyd, Trieste'' for 'Information for Passengers by
the Austrian Lloyd's Steam Navigation Company* (published in English).
With the aid of these two sets of time-tables, the traveller will have
little difficulty in making out his programme. See also 'Baedeker's Pa¬
lestine and Syria' (sold at the bookshops of Alexandria and Cairo).
In selecting a route the traveller must of course be guided by
circumstances and his own inclination. The shortest sea-voyage is
that from Brindisi, three days; from Trieste (via, Corfu), or from
Venice (via Ancona and Brindisi), five days ; from Naples, four
days. The last-named route is perhaps the best for returning, as
the temperature of Naples and Rome form a pleasant intermediary
between the warmth of Egypt and the colder climate of N. Europe.
The vessels of the principal lines are all nearly on a par with
regard to comfort and speed, many of them being large and hand¬
somely fitted up, while others are inferior. The following remarks
apply chiefly to the French and Austrian steamers.
The First Class cabins and berths are always well furnished; those
of the Second Class, though less showy, are tolerably comfortable, and