son, Leopold of Saxe-Coburg was next selected by the congress, and
that prince accordingly ascended the throne on 21st July, 1831.
The treaty of the intervening powers, signed at London on 15th
Nov., 1831, by the representatives of the five great powers and of
Belgium, although not finally recognised by the exasperated King
of Holland till 1839, constituted the Kingdom of Belgium one of
the independent European states, and determined the boundaries
and the relations between the two disunited kingdoms.
King Leopold II., born in 1835, the son of Leopold I. (b. 1790,
d. 1865) and of Louise, his second consort, daughter of Louis Phi¬
lippe (d. 1850), ascended the throne on 10th Dec., 1865. His
Queen is Marie Henriette, daughter of the late Archduke Joseph.
The royal family consists of the Princesses Louise (b. 1858; mar¬
ried in 1875 to Prince Philip of Saxe-Coburg) , Stephanie (b. 1864 ;
married in 1881 to Rudolph, Crown Prince of Austria), and Clemen¬
tine (b. 1872). Leopold, the only son (b. 1859), died at the age of
ten. The Count of Flanders (b. 1845), who is married to a German
Princess, is the King's brother. Charlotte, the widow of Maximilian,
Emp. of Mexico (d. 1867), is a sister of Leopold II.
Extent. The extremelength of the kingdom, fromN.W. toS.E.,
is 179 Engl. M., breadth from N. to S. 110 M., area 11,235 sq. M.
Population (in 1882) 5,655,197 (in 1831, 3,785,864 only), of
whom about 2'/2 millions are Flemings, and about 2 millions Wal¬
loons. The Roman Catholic religion is greatly predominant, about
15,000 only of the population being Protestants, and 3000 Jews;
and of these two sects more than half are resident in the provinces
of Antwerp and Brabant.
Provinces. The country is divided into nine provinces, viz.
Antwerp, Brabant, W. Flanders, E. Flanders, Hainault, Liege,
Limburg, Luxembourg, and Namur. The density of population
amounts to nearly 500 per sq. M., and varies from 800 per sq. M.
in Brabant to 135 per sq. M. in Luxembourg. Brabant, E. Flan¬
ders, and Hainault, are, with the exception of some of the manu¬
facturing districts of England, among the most densely peopled
districts in the world.
Army. The Belgian army is destined on principle only for the
defence of the country and of the neutrality assured to it by the
Treaty of London (p. xviii). It consists of 103,680 men, of whom
3373 are officers, and in time of peace, of 47,872 men. The army
is composed of the following regiments: 1 Carabineers, 3 Riflemen,
14 Infantry of the line, 1 Grenadiers; 2 Chasseurs-a-cheval, 2 Lan¬
cers, 2 Guides, whose celebrated band is one of the best in Europe ;
4 Field Artillery (40 batteries of 6 guns each, 4 mounted), 3 Fortress
Artillery; 1 Engineers; 1 Telegraph, and 1 Railway company.
There are also several companies of the military train and pontoniers.
The country is divided into four military districts, each containing
four active and one depot division. The principal military dep6t