History. CINCINNATI. 58. Route. 385
on the surrounding highlands. In 1900 Cincinnati contained
325,902 inhab., of whom about a third were of German origin. The
Germans formerly resided mainly to the N. of the Miami Canal, and
that district is known as 'Over the Rhine'. On the opposite bank of
the Ohio, in Kentucky, lie the cities of Covington and Newport
(p. 387), connected with Cincinnati by five fine bridges.
Cincinnati was settled* in 1788 and named in honour of the Society of
tbe Cincinnati (officers of the Army of the Revolution). Mounds con¬
taining relics seem to indicate that part of the site was occupied in pre¬
historic times. By the beginning of the 19th cent, it contained about 7-800
inhab., and in 1819 it received its city charter. Its growth dates mainly
from the construction of the Miami Canal (1830) and the advent of the
railway system (1840). In 1850 it contained 115,436 inhab., in 1870 it had
216,239, and in 1880 it had 255,708.
Industry and Trade. The value of Cincinnati's manufactures in 1900
was §157,800,000 (31,560,000/.), produced by 63,000 bands. The staple
articles include iron, machinery, carriages, boots and shoes, furniture,
office-furnishings, pianos, soap, printing ink, decorative pottery, beer,
tobacco, and whiskey. Pork-packing is also extensively carried on. Its
trade, transacted by river and rail, is also very important.
*Fountain Square (PL D,E,4), an expansion of 5th Street, may,
perhaps, be called the business-centre of the city and from it start
most of the tramway-lines. In the middle of the square stands
the *Tyler Davidson Fountain, one of the most successful works
of art in the United States, erected in 1871. It was designed by
August von Kreling and cast at the Royal Bronze Foundry at
Munich. To the N., at the corner of 5th St. and Walnut St., is
the U. S. Government Building (PL E,4), accommodating the Post
Office, Custom House, and U. S. Law Courts.
By following 5th St. to the W. and turning to the left down
Vine St., we pass the entrance to the Emery Arcade (PL D, 4) and
reach, at the corner of the busy 4th Street, the *Chamber of Com¬
merce (PL D, 4), designed by H. H. Richardson (p. xciii) and per¬
haps the finest building in the city. Opposite, at tbe N.E. cor. of
4th and Vine Sts., stands the huge Ingolls Building (PL 2), 14 stories
high, the highest wholly concrete building in the world. At the N.W.
corner of tbe same streets is the fine Third National Bank (PL 4).
Following 4th St. towards the W., we soon reach Plum Street
(Pl.D, 4,5), which we may follow to the right (N.) to "St. Paul's Prot.
Cathedral (PL D, 4; Epis.), at the corner of 7th St.; the it*. C.
Cathedral of St. Peter (PL D, 4), at the corner of 8th St. (with an
alleged Murillo and other pictures); and the Synagogue (Pl.D, 4),
opposite the last. In the block bounded by Central Ave. and 8th,
9th, and Plum Sts. is the *City Hall (PL D, 4), a large red
building in a Romanesque style, with a lofty tower (*View), erected
at a cost of $ 1,600,000. A little to the E., in Vine St., between
6th & 7th Sts., is the Public Library (PL D, 4; 300,000 vols.).
To the N. of this point, 'over the Rhine' (see above), is Wash¬
ington Square (PL D, 3), with the Springer Music Hall (p. 384) and
the Exposition Building.
Baedeker's United States. 3rd Edit. 05