348 Route 48. CHICAGO. History.
Theatres and Places of Amusement. Auditorium Theatre (PI. a; C, 3),
Congress St. (comp. p. 350), splendidly fitted up and accommodating 4-5000
people; Garrick Theatre (PI. 14; C, 2), Randolph St., built by Sullivan, the
architect of the Auditorium; Illinois (PI. 39; C, 3), 22 Jackson Boulevard;
Studebaker, in the Fine Arts Building (PI. 33; C, 3); Chicago Opera House
(PI. 6, B 2; vaudeville), 118 Washington St.; McVicker's Theatre (PI. 18;
C, 2, 3), Madison St.; Powers's Theatre (PI. 17; B, 2), Randolph St.; Grand
Opera House (PI. 15; B, C, 2), Clark St.; Great Northern Theatre (PI. e; C, 3),
Jackson St., near Dearborn St.; Academy of Music, South Halsted St.;
Cleveland's Theatre, cor. of Wabash Ave. & Hubbard Court (vaudeville);
Olympia, Haymarket, vaudeville performances. — The "Concerts of Thomas's
Orchestra are held in the building of the Chicago Orchestral Association
Post Office (PI. B, 3), in block bounded by Adams, Dearborn, Jack¬
son, & Clark Sts.; general delivery open day and night, on Sun. 11-1.
Provisional Post Office, Michigan Ave., opposite Washington St. (PI. C 2).
Booksellers. McClurg, 215 Wabash Ave., one of the biggest bookshops
in the world; Brenlano, 200 Wabash Ave., cor. of Adams St.
British Consul, Mr. Alexander Finn, 630 Pullman Buildings.
Tourist Agents. Raymond & Whitcomb Co., 103 Adams St.; Thos. Cook
d- Son, 234 South Clark St.
Chicago (pron. Shikdhgo; 590 ft. above the sea, 15-75 ft. above
the lake), the second city and largest railway-centre of the United
States, is situated on the S.W. shore of Lake Michigan (p. 342), at the
mouths of the rivers Chicago and Calumet. It is 850 M. from Balti¬
more, the nearestpoint on the Atlantic, and2415 M. from San Francisco.
It covers an area of 187 sq. M., and in 1900 contained 1,698,575 in¬
habitants. The city has a water-front on the lake of 26 M. and is
divided by the Chicago River and its branches into three portions,
known as the North, South, and West Sides. The site of the city is
remarkably level, rising very slightly from the lake; and its streets
are usually wide and straight. Among the chief business-thorough¬
fares are /State, Clark, Madison, Randolph, Dearborn, and La Salle
Streets, and Wabash Avenue. Perhaps the finest residence streets are
Michigan Avenue and Drexel and Grand Boulevards, on the S. side,
and Lake Shore Drive, on the N. side.
It is estimated that not more than 350,000 of the inhabitants are native
Americans; about 600,000 are Germans, 250,000 are Irish, 180,000 Scandi¬
navians, 100,000 Poles, 90,000 Bohemians, 30,000 Italians, 35,000 Canadians,
and 180,000 English and Scottish. 'In Chicago there are some 14 languages,
besides English, each of which is spoken by 10,000 or more persons.
Newspapers appear regularly in 10 languages, and church-services may be
heard in about 20 languages. Chicago is the second largest Bohemian city
of the world, tbe third Swedish, the third Norwegian, the fourth Polish,
the fifth German. In all there are some 40 foreign languages spoken by
numbers ranging from half a dozen to half a million, and aggregating
over one million'. (Prof. G. D. Buck, in 'Decennial Publications of the
University of Chicago'; 1903.)
History. The growth of Chicago has been phenomenal even among
American cities. The river Chicago (the Indian Checagua, meaning 'wild
onion' and 'pole-cat') was, indeed, visited by the Frenchmen Joliet and
Marquette in 1673, but it was not until 1804 that the United States Govern¬
ment erected Fort Dearborn, the first permanent settlement in the swamp
that was afterwards Chicago. The garrison of the fort was massacred by
Indians in 1812, but the fort was rebuilt and re-occupied two years later.
In 1831 the little village contained about 100 inhab. and in 1837 it had
attained to the dignity of an incorporated city and a population of 4170. In