336 Route 46. DETROIT. From Buffalo
chief Pontiac. It was nominally ceded to the United States in 1783, but
the Americans did not become masters of it till 1796. The fort was taken
by the British in 1812 and retaken by the Americans in 1813. Detroit
was incorporated as a city in 1824, with about 1500 inhabitants. In 1850
the population was 21,019, in 1880 it was 134,834, in 1890 it was 203,816.
Some idea of the volume of traffic on the Great Lakes may be
gathered from the fact that at least 60,000 vessels pass Detroit yearly in
the seven months during which navigation is open, carrying about 50 million
tons of freight.
The staples of its manufactures, the value of which in 1900 was over
$100,000,000 (20,000,000*.), are iron and steel goods, cars and car-wheels,
stoves (150,000 annually), drugs, confectionery, fur, salt, and tobacco.
The huge soda ash plants of the Solvay Process Co., J. B. Ford <t- Co.,
and the Michigan Alkali Co., taking advantage of the immense deposits of
salt in this locality and the near proximity of good limestone, are situated
on the river just below the city.
The finest private art-gallery in Detroit is the Whistler Collection of
Mr. Charles L. Freer, 33 Ferry Ave., which the owner is willing to show
to those really interested.
Wood-ward Avenub (PL A-C, 1-4), running N.W. from the river
and dividing the city into two nearly equal parts, is the main busi¬
ness thorough-fare and the chief centre of life. Most of the principal
buildings are on or near it. Near its foot (S.E. end) are the chief
Steamboat Wharves and the Ferry to Windsor (p. 335; PL C, 4).
About !/2 M. from the river the street expands into the Campus
Martius (PL C, 4), adorned with a handsome fountain, from which
Michigan and Gratiot Avenues diverge to the left and right. To the
left stands the City Hall (PL C, 4; to be remodelled), the tower
(view) of which contains a clock with a dial S'^ft. in diameter. In
front of the City Hall is the Soldiers' Monument, by Randolph Rogers,
and in front of the Opera House (p. 335) is a Bust of ex-Governor
Bagley. At the corner of Woodward Ave. rises the tall Majestic
Building (PL C, 4; fine view from the roof, 10 c).
In Gratiot Ave., near the Campus Martius, is the Public Library
(PI. C, 4), containing 180,000 vols, and some historical relics. At the
corner of Griswold St. (running parallel with Woodward Ave. on the W.)
and Grand River Ave. is the Young Men's Christian Association (PI. C, 4).
The Chamber of Commerce (PI. C, 4), at the corner of Griswold and State
Sts., is 13 stories high. — Tbe Post Office (PI. C, 4), in Fort St., adjoining
the site of the old Fort Lernoult, is a handsome building. The evacuation
of Fort Lernoult by the British on July 11th, 1796, was the closing act
of the War of Independence (memorial tablet).
Just to the E. of the Campus Martius, in the block bounded by Congress,
Fort, Brush, and Randolph Sts., stands the 'County Building (PI. C, 4). It is
in a plain Renaissance style with a Corinthian portico over the main entrance,
sculptures in the pediment, and a tower surmounted by a gilded dome.
A little farther on WoodwaTd Ave. reaches Grand Ciucus Park
(PL B, C, 3), a square with trees and fountains. At the corner of
Edmund Place, y2 M- farther on, are the "First Unitarian and First
Presbyterian Churches (PL B, 3), two fine Romanesque buildings of
red stone. To the right, at the head of Martin Place, is the hand¬
some Harper Hospital (PI. B, 2); and Grace Hospital (PI. B, 2) is
also seen to the right (cor. of Willis Ave. and John R. St.) a little
farther on. To the left, a little higher up, is the Detroit Athletic
Club (PL B, 2; Nos. 833-865). The N. end of Woodward Avenue