to Buffalo. UTICA. 28. Route. 233
The Mohawks were, perhaps, the best known of the Indian tribes which
formed the confederation known as the Five Nations, occupying the great
Lake District of New York. The other members of the league, named
from E. to W., were the Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas. The
Tuscaroras from Carolina were afterwards admitted to the league, which
then took the name of the Six Nations. The confederacy had about 15,000
members, and perhaps 10-12,000 still exist, the majority in Canada, the others
in reservations in New York, where they live as peaceable farmers.
From (198 M.) Palatine Bridge (305 ft.) coaches run to (14 M.)
Sharon Springs (p. 201). To the left, farther on, is seen the red¬
brick Herkimer Mansion, with a monument to Nicholas Herkimer,
who died in 1777 of wounds received at Oriskany (p. 234).
217 M. Little Falls (375 ft.; Girvan Ho., $ 2-272), a small
manufacturing town with 10,381 inhab., romantically situated in a
narrow *Gorge cut by the Mohawk through a spur of the Adiron¬
dacks. The river, the N. Y. C. and West Shore railways, and the
Erie Canal can barely make their way through the pass side by
side. The Mohawk here descends 45 ft. in !/2 M., forming a series
of pretty little falls, and the houses cling picturesquely to the steep
rocky sides of the defile. This gorge affords an excellent opportunity
of studying the crystalline rocks of the Laurentian formation, part
of the oldest dry land on the face of the globe. Richfield Springs
(p. 234) is 12 M. to the S. — Farther on we cross the Canada
Creek and reach (224 M.) Herkimer (Palmer Ho., Waverley, $2-
2J/2; 5555 inhab.), where connection is made with the Adiron¬
dack Division (see p. 221), though the principal through-trains
run via, Utica (comp. p. 221).
Beyond (226 M.) Ilion (400 ft.), a pretty village to the left,
with a small-arms factory, the train crosses the river and canal.
238 M. 1Jtica (410 ft.; Butlerfield, from $3; Baggs, $272-4; St.
James, $2-3; Rail. Restaurant), a prosperous town and headquar¬
ters of the American cheese trade, with 56,383 inhab., lies on the
S. bank of the Mohawk, on the site of Fort Schuyler (1756). To
the W. is the Slate Lunatic Asylum. Genesee Street is a handsome
thoroughfare. A tablet commemorates the visit of Lafayette in 1825.
From Utica to Malone (Adirondacks), see R. 25d.
Fkom Utica to Ogdensbukg, 134 M., railway in 5-572 hrs. (fare $4.21).
This line runs to the N., connecting Utica with Lake Ontario and the
St. Lawrence, and forming part of a favourite through - route from New
York to the Thousand Islands (p. 255). — The train crosses the Mohawk.
17 M. Trenton Falls Station (840ft.; Hotel Trenton, $ 3; Trenton Falls Hotel,
$ 2) is about 72 M. from the "Trenton Falls, a scene of mingled gran¬
deur and beauty, which is by no means so well or widely known as
it deserves. The West Canada or Kahnata ('amber-water') Creek, the Kauya-
hoora ('leaping water') of the Indians, here forms a highly picturesque
ravine, with abrupt rocky sides, through which, within 2 M., the water
descends 310 ft. in a charming series of five main falls and innumerable
rapids. The stratification of the limestone rocks is very clearly defined,
exposing the geological and the fossil organic remains to full view; and
an abundance of interesting fossils, including innumerable trilobites, have
been found. The name of the Trenton formation is taken from this place.
We descend (fee 25c.) to the floor of the ravine by a staircase near the
Hotel Trenton and walk up past the singular "Sherman Falls (35 ft.), the