but this may, of course, be avoided by the more expensive plan of using
a carriage between the house and railway-station.
Steamers. Some of the American steamers, such as the Fall
River and Hudson boats (pp. 87, 186), offer comforts and luxuries
such as are scarcely known in Europe, and their fares are usually
moderate. Where the fare does not include a separate stateroom, the
traveller by night will find the extra expenditure for one ($ 1-2)
more than compensated. Meals are sometimes included in the faTe
and are sometimes served either ct la carte or at a fixed price. Through¬
out the Handbook the traveller will find indicated the routes on which
he may advantageously prefer the steamer to the railway.
Coaches, usually called Stages, and in some country-places
Barges, have now been replaced by railways throughout nearly the
whole of the United States, but in places like the Yosemite (p. 574),
the Yellowstone (p. 479), etc., the traveller is still dependent on this
mode of conveyance. The roads are generally so bad, that the
delights of coaching as known in England are for the most part
conspicuously absent. The speed seldom exceeds 6 M. an hour and
is sometimes less than this. The fares are relatively high.
Carriages. Carriage-hire is very high in the United States in
spite of the fact that both the price of horses and their keep are
usually lower than in England. Fares vary so much that it is im¬
possible to give any general approximation, but they are rarely less
than twice as high as in Europe. When the traveller drives himself
in a 'buggy' or other small carriage, the rates are relatively much lower.
Electric Tramways. The enormous increase in the number of
Electric Tramways, Light Railways, or 'Trolley Lines' has been one
of the most striking features of the transportation system of the
United States in the past few years. There are now about 22,000 M.
of electric track and 60,000 cars, employing 1,000,000 men and
carrying 5,000,000,000 passengers yearly.
Not only do nearly all the cities of the United States possess excellent.
systems of electric tramways, which enable the tourist to visit the points
of interest, urban and suburban, at a minimum expenditure of time and
money; but the network of lines extends all over the country, often offering
journey of 100 M. or more at a very moderate cost. It is (e.g.) practicable
to go from one end of New England to the other in a successive series of
such tramways; and this way of travelling offers many advantages to the
tourist who wishes to become as intimately acquainted as possible with
the country he traverses. Some of these trolley-lines attain a speed of
15-20 M. per hour.
IV. Plan of Tour.
The plan of tour must depend entirely on the traveller's taste
and the time he has at his disposal. It is manifestly impossible to
cover more than a limited section of so vast a territory in an ordinary
travelling season; but the enormous distances are practically much
diminished by the comfortable arrangements for travelling at night
(comp. p. xx). Among the grandest natural features of the country,