II. Voyage from Europe to the United States.
The chief routes from Europe to the United States are indicated
in R. 1 (comp. also p. 8); and the steamers of any of the com¬
panies there mentioned afford comfortable accommodation and
speedy transit. The fares vary considerably according to season and
the character of the vessel; but the extremes for a saloon-passage
may be placed at $ 50 (lOf.) and $ 500 (100i.), the latter sum secur¬
ing a suite of deck-rooms on the largest, finest, and quickest boats
in the service. The average rate for a good stateroom in a good
steamer may be reckoned at $75-125 (15-25?.). The intermediate
or second cabin costs $ 30-65 (6-13J.), the steerage $ 15-20 (3-4J.).
The slowest steamers, as a general rule, have the lowest fares; and
for those who do not object to a prolongation of the voyage they
often offer as much comfort as the 'ocean greyhounds.'
The average duration of the passage across the Atlantic is 6-9 days.
Passengers should pack clothing and other necessaries for the voyage in
small flat boxes (not portmanteaus), such as can lie easily in the cabin,
as all bulky luggage is stowed away in the hold. Stateroom trunks should
not exceed 3 ft. in length, 1V2-2 ft. in breadth, and 15 inches in height.
Trunks not wanted on board should be marked 'Hold' or 'Not Wanted',
the others 'Cabin' or 'Wanted'. The steamship companies generally provide
labels for this purpose. Dress for the voyage should be of a plain and
serviceable description, and it is advisable, even in midsummer, to be
provided with warm clothing. A deck-chair, which may be purchased or
hired (4s.) before sailing, is a luxury that may almost he called a neces¬
sary. If bought, it should be distinctly marked with the owner's name or
initials, and may he left in charge of 1he Steamship Co.'s agents until
the return-journey. On going on board, the traveller should apply to the
purser or chief steward for a seat at table, as the same seats are retained
throughout the voyage. It is usual to give a fee of 10s. (2'/2 dollars) to
the table-steward and to the slateroom-steward, and small gratuities are
also expected by the boot-cleaner, the bath-steward, etc. The stateroom
steward should not be 'tipped' until he has brought all the passenger's
small baggage safely on to the landing-stage. The customary tees are, of
course, much lower in the second cabin. — Landing at New York, see pp. 3,7.
The custom-house officer usually boards vessels at the Quarantine Sta¬
tion (see p. 3) and furnishes blank forms on which the passengers 'declare'
any dutiable articles they may have in their trunks. The luggage is
examined in the covered hall adjoining the wharf, where it is arranged as
far as possible in alphabetical order by the initials of the owners' names
(comp. p. 7). After the examination the traveller may hire a carriage
to take himself and his baggage to his destination, or he may send his
trunks by a transfer-agent or express man (see p. xxii) and go himself on
foot or by tramway. Telegraph messengers and representatives of hotels
also meet the steamers.
III. Railways. Steamers. Coaches. Tramways.
Railways. The United States now contain about 210,000 M.
of railway, or about two-fifths of the total mileage of the world.
The lines are all in private hands, and the capital invested in them
amounts to about $14,000,000,000 (2,800,000,0001.). Nearly
50 corporations report over 1000 M. of track each, while the Penn¬
sylvania Railroad System alone works fully 10,500 M. The total