472 Envir. of Borne. VILLA ADRIANA. 3. Sabine Mts.
to its different parts he assigned the names of celebrated buildings
and localities, such as the Lyceum, the Academy, the Prytaneum,
Canopus, the Stoa Poecile, and Tempe, while in order that nothing
should be wanting he even constructed a representation of Tartarus'.
After the death of its founder this gigantic construction is men¬
tioned only once in ancient history, when the Emp. Aurelian as¬
signed a villa at Tivoli, near the 'Palatium Hadriani', to Zenohia,
the captive queen of Palmyra. In the 16th cent, a profitable search
for works of ancient art was instituted here, and the ruins yielded
many of the principal treasures of the Vatican, Capitoline, and other
museums. Unfortunately, however, the destruction of the buildings
kept pace with the search for treasures of art, until in 1871 the Italian
government purchased the villa from the family of the Braschi.
Systematic excavations have been carried on since 1890.
Archaeologists have tried to identify the extant ruins with the
buildings mentioned by Spartian in the passage cited above, and
though it is generally doubtful we here follow the usuai terminology.
One of the chief charms of the Villa is its landscape beauty.
Adjoining the watchman's hut is the so-called Teatro Greco,
of which the stage and the rows of seats are stili clearly distinguish-
able. Skirting the posterior wall of the stage, we then ascend to
the right through an avenue of cypresses, passing a building of the
16th cent, (now used as the Casa dei Custodi) and the so-called
Nymphaeum. At the end of the avenue is the Poecile (Ital. ilPecile),
consisting of a huge colonnade, surrounding a rectangular garden
with a large water-basin in the centre. This has arbitrarily been
assumed to be an imitation of the cxoà ttoiiuXt], or painted porch
(i.e. adorned with paintings) at Athens, though we have no in¬
formation as to the actual appearance of that edifice. The wall
(220 yds. long) which bounds this on the N. runs almost due E. and
W., so that of the arcades on either side one lay in shade while the
other had a full S. aspect. The naturai plateau of the hill has been
•enlarged on the W. and S.W. by gigantic substructures, which
contain three stories of vaulted chambers, accessible through an
entrance on the S. side of the square (PI. 1), near the cypress-tree.
These chambers, generally called Le Cento Camerette, are supposed
to have been occupied by the imperiai guards or slaves. — At the
N.E. corner of the square is the entrance to the Sala de' Filosofi,
with niches for statues. From it we enter a Circular Building (PI. 3)
containing a water-basin and an artificial island adorned with
columns; this is usually described as a Natatorium (swimming-
bath) or Teatro Marittimo, but it is more probably a pavilion,
used perhaps as a summer dining-hall. To the E. of this building
was situated the Principal Palace. We first enter, at a somewhat
higher elevation, a rectangular court (Cortile della Biblioteca), the
left side of which is occupied by the so-called Library (PI. 4),