2. Alban Mts. CASTEL GANDOLFO. Envir. of Borne. 463
and rain. It is drained by a very ancient Emissarium which issues
below Castel Gandolfo (see below).
The train rounds the inner margin of the crater, skirting the
lake, of which it affords a beautiful view. To the left soon appear
Monte Cavo and Rocca di Papa. On the long low hill above the E.
bank of the lake once lay Alba Longa, Rome's mother-city.
The foundation of Alba Longa belongs to a prehistoric period, and
tradition has attributed it to Ascanius, the son of iEneas. It was the
ancient capital, and the politicai and religious centre, of the Latin League,
but was destroyed at an early period by its younger rivai on the banks
of the Tiber, after which, however, the ancient festivals of the League
on the Mons Albanus stili continued to be celebrated.
No traces of the buildings of Alba Longa remain, but the cutting of
the hillsides reveals the former presence of human activity. The necro¬
polis lay on the so-called Monte Cucco, to the W. of the town, and num¬
erous graves, with hut-urns, bronze implements, and household utensils,
have been discovered. It is alleged that some of these were found
beneath the peperino, which would prove that they date back to an era
when the Monti Albani were stili in a state of volcanic activity.
1672 M. Castel Gandolfo (1395 ft. ; Hotel Belvedere, R. from
3, pens. from 7 fr., with view; Ristorante della Ferrovia, with
view; Casa Gigante, pens. 6fr.; carriage-fares about the same as
at Albano, p. 464), the seat of the Savelli in the middle ages, has
belonged to the popes since 1596. It is an insignificant place
(1980 inhab.) with a large Papal Palace, erected by Urban Vili.
from designs by Carlo Maderna, and splendidly situated 430 ft.
above the Alban Lake. The chàteau was formerly a favourite summer-
resort of the popes, and enjoys the privilege of exterritoriality by
the guarantee of 1871 (p. 373). — The village is reached from the
station either by a direct but steep footpath, or by the carriage-
road which leads in 10 min. to the N. entrance and thence ascends
to the left to the Piazza del Plebiscito, with the papal palace. In
front of the latter is the church of San Tommaso da Villanova,
by Bernini (1661). At the S. end of the village, to the right, lies
the Villa Barberini, with shady grounds, the ruins of a villa of
Domitian, and a fine view of the Campagna (visitors usually ad¬
mitted; fee). — A charming avenue, shaded by evergreen oaks, the
so-called * Galleria di Sopra, leads above the lake to Albano in
l/2 hr., affording numerous pretty retrospects of Castel Gandolfo.
At the Capuchin monastery (see p. 465) the main road descends to
the right to Albano and Ariccia. The route diverging to the left,
dose under the convent-wall, leads in 25-30 min. to the highroad
from Albano to Rocca di Papa (p. 468). The beautiful footpath, stili
farther to the left, along the lake, leads to Palazzuola (p. 468).
The custodian of the Emissarium, the above-mentioned artificial outlet
of the Alban Lake, lives in the red fisherman's hut, at the N. end of
the village (fee I-IV2 fr-) Visitors who arrive by railway should visit
the Emissarium before ascending to Castel Gandolfo. The path de¬
scends steeply from the Galleria di Sopra a little before the S. end of
the village to the bank of the lake. The descent occupies nearly V4 hr.,