380 IV. Bight Bank. ROME. e. The Vatican:
been introduced by Perugino, and who soon became so prominent
among his fellows, that the work was entrusted to him exclusively.
Raphael did not, however, live to complete his task, and it was
finished by his pupils. For each of these paintings he received
1200 gold scudi (nearly 5001.). They were seriously injured during
the plundering of Rome in 1527, but were restored by Carlo Maratta
under Clement XI. (comp. also pp. lxxii et seq.).
The development of Raphael's genius will be more fully realized
if the frescoes are inspected in the order in which they were painted :
Stanza della Segnatura (p. 381), Stanza d'Eliodoro (p. 384), Stanza dell'
Incendio (see below), Sala di Costantino (p. 385).
I. Stanza dell' Incendio, the third in chronological order.
The frescoes here were painted in 1517 by pupils of Raphael, from
his designs. — The Ceiling Paintings (Glorification of the Trinity)
are by Perugino (1508), Raphael's teacher. — The Murai Paintings
represent scenes from the pontificates of Leo III. and Leo IV.
Over the window: 1. Oath of Leo III., sworn by him in pre-
sence of Charlemagne (with the gold chain, his back turned to the
spectator), in order to exculpate himself from the accusations
brought against him, executed by Perin del Vaga.
To the right of this, on the exit-wall: 2. Victory of Leo IV.
over the Saracens at Ostia, executed by Giulio Romano. The
pope is represented as Leo X., accompanied by Card. Giulio de'
Medici (Clement VII.), Card. Bibbiena, and others. — Below: Fer¬
dinand the Catholic, and the Emp. Lothaire.
*3. Incendio del Borgo, or Conflagration in the Borgo, whence
the name of the room. This work was probably carried out by
Francesco Penni alone. The apparently ungrateful task of painting
a miracle has been performed so happily by the genius of Raphael,
that he has presented us with what would be termed in modern
language a magnificent genre-picture. The traditional incident —
the extinguishing of a fire which had broken out in the Borgo, or
Vatican quarter, by the sign of the cross made by Pope Leo IV.
(9th cent.) in the Loggia of St. Peter's — is placed in the back¬
ground. The foreground exhibits the terrors of a conflagration,
the efforts of the people to save themselves and their goods, and
the half-paralysed condition especially of the mothers and other
women. "We are then transported to the heroic age, by a group in
the left corner, representing Mneas carrying the aged Anchises
on his back and accompanied by Creusa and Ascanius, his wife and
child. Raphael's object in introducing this group was probably to
give an ideal example of fìlial devotion at a moment of great perii,
and also perhaps to arrest the attention of his contemporaries by
these well-known figures from the familiar iEneid. The Incendio is
unquestionably the most popular picture of the series, and is well
adapted to illustrate the superiority of Raphael's art to that of a
later period. The antiquarian will also scan with interest the fagade