372 IV. Bight Bank. ROME. b. St. Peter's (Dome).
The Grotte Vecchie are three long passages beneath the present
nave. The pavement was originally that of the ancient church, and lies
11 ft. below that of the present church. These vaults contain the sepul¬
chral monuments of many popes and princes from the old church. In e.
those of the Stuarts (p. 370), Nicholas I. (d. 867), Gregory V. (Bruno,
a German ; d. 999), and Emp. Otho II. (d. at Rome, 983). At the end
of f. that of Alexander VI. (d. 1503 ; comp. p. 264). In g. those of
Adrian IV. (Nicholas Breakspeare, the only English pope, d. 1159), an
old sarcophagus in granite ; Pius II. (JEneas Sylvius Piccolomini, d. 1464),
an early-Christian sarcophagus (comp. p. 32) ; Pius III. (d. 1503 ; comp
p. 31) ; Boniface Vili. (d. 1303), by Arnolfo di Cambio (?) ; Nicholas V-
(Thomas of Sarzana, d. 1455) ; Paul II. (d. 1471) and Card. Eroli (see
p. 371), both by Giov. Dalmata; Urban VI. (d. 1389) ; Marcellus IL (d. 1555),
an early-Christian sarcophagus ; and Cardinal Fonseca (d. 1422).
For the * Ascent of the Dome (see p. 173) a permesso is re¬
quired, except on Sat., and may be obtained in the 'Rev. Fabbrica
di San Pietro', Via della Sagrestia 8 (first floor). Visitors knock
at the door in the left aisle (PI. 55). An easy spirai inclined piane
ascends to the roof. The walls bear memorial-tablets of royal per-
sonàges who have made the ascent. On the roof a number of
domes and other small structures are seen, some of which serve as
dwellings for the workmen and custodians. The *View from the
roof ranges over the entire city and the Campagna from the Apen¬
nines to the sea.
One of the eight octagonal chambers in the piers which support the
dome contains a model of the cupola by Michael Angelo and his pre-
decessor Ant. da Sangallo the Younger, for admission to which a special
permesso of the Maggiordomo of the Rev. Fabbrica di San Pietro, Via
della Sagrestia 8, must be procured.
The Dome rises 308 ft. above the roof, and is 630 ft. in circum¬
ference. The visitor will observe the huge hoops of iron by which
the dome was strengthened in the 18th cent., when threatening
fissures had begun to appear. The gallery within the drum affords
a striking view of the interior. An easy staircase ascends between
the outer and inner domes to the Lantern, which commands a
view of the whole church and its environs. A perpendicular iron
ladder ascends to the copper ball on the summit, which can hold
16 persons, but affords no view; the ascent is not worth the trouble,
and is quite unsuitable for ladies.
Ascending by St. Peter's, to the left beyond the colonnades (way
to the Vatican gallery of statues, see p. 393, and Pian, p. 362),
we reach, near the sacristy, a slab in the pavement marking the
former site of the obelisk mentioned at p. 362. To the left is the
Campo Santo dei Tedeschi, said to be the most ancient Christian
burial-ground in Rome, and filled with earth from Mt. Calvary.
In 1779 it was granted to the Germans and Dutch by Pius VI.
Adjacent is the church of Santa Maria della Pietà in Campo
Santo, adjoining which is the German and Flemish refuge for