ROME. IV. BigMBank. 365
of transept inside 150 yds. — The dome, from the pavement to the summit
of the lantern, is 404 ft. in height, to the summit of the cross 435 ft. ;
its diameter is 138 ft., or about 5 ft. less than that of the Pantheon.
The church contains 29 altars, in addition to the high-altar, and 148 columns.
— By the end of the 17th cent, the cost of the building had amounted
to upwards of 47 million scudi (about 10,000,000^.), and the present ex-
pense of its maintenance is about 7500?. per annum. The new sacristy,
erected by Pius VI., cost 900,000 scudi (about 192,0002.).
The Facade, with 8 columns, 4 pilasters, and 6 semi-pilasters
of the Corinthian order, is 123 yds. long and. 165 ft. high, and is
approached by a flight of steps. It is surmounted by a balustrade
with statues of the Saviour and apostles, 19 ft. high. The inscrip¬
tion records that it was erected by Paul V. (Borghese) in 1612.
Over the centrai of the five entrances is the Loggia in which the
new pope used to be crowned, and whence he imparted his benedic-
tion 'urbi et orbi' at Easter (discontinued since 1870).
The Portico, 78 yds. in length, 14:/2 in width, and 66 ft. in
height, is admirably decorated, the magnificent stucco-ornament-
ation of the ceiling being especially noteworthy. At the ends of
the portico are equestrian statues: on the left, Charlemagne by
Cornacchini, on the right, Constantine the Great by Bernini. The
latter is concealed by a side-door (always kept shut) leading to the
Scala Regia (p. 374).
Over the interior of the centrai esternai entrance is St. Peter on
the sea, termed 'La Navicella', a mosaic after Giotto (1298), formerly
in the entrance-court of the earlier church, unfortunately considerably
altered by Marcello Provenzale and Fratte. Beretta and entirely modern-
ized. A copy of the originai is preserved in Santa Maria della Concezione
in the Piazza Barberini (p. 186).
The five doors of the church are framed by antique columns of
pavonazzetto and africano. The door on the extreme right, in-
dicated by a cross, is called the Porta Santa, and is opened only
in the years of jubilee (every 25 years; the last occasion was in
1900, but the ceremony was omitted in 1850 and 1875). The great
centrai entrance is closed by the brazen *Doors which Eugene IV.
caused to be executed in 1439-45 by Ant. Filarete (p. lxvii) after
the model of those of San Giovanni at Florence. The Christian
subjects represented on the main panels contrast strangely with
the pagan subjects on the surrounding ornamentai borders, such
as Phrixus and Helle on the ram, Europa on the bull, Ganymede
carried off by the eagle, Leda and the swan, etc.
The **Interior of St. Peter's is strikingly impressive, and the
effect is produced not so much by the vastness as by the harmony
and symmetry of its proportions. The finest features, such as the
great breadth of the three arms of the cross, the four great dome
pillarsj the arcades below the dome, and the diameter of the latter,
are ali due to Bramante, to whom also the coffering of the barrel-"
vaulting must be ascribed. The coloured marble incrustation of