Castel Sant'Angelo. ROME. IV. Right Bank. 357
middle are antique, two new ones having been added at each end. —
The temporary iron Suspension Bridge, erected a little lower down
the river during the alterations, has been allowed to remain, and
is at present used by the tramway-cars. The construction of a new
bridge, the Ponte Vittorio Emanuele, designed to continue the
direct line of the Corso of that name, was begun in 1908 and is
expected to be finished in 1911.
The *Castel Sant* Angelo (PI. I, 12), which was originally
the tomb erected in A.D. 136 by Hadrian for himself and his suc¬
cessors (Moles Hadriani), was completed in 139 by Antoninus Pius.
On a substructure, 114 yds. square, rises a cylinder of peperino
and travertine, 80 yds. in diameter, once encrusted with marble.
This cylinder was probably once surmounted by another of smaller
dimensions, on which a colossal statue of Hadrian, conjecturally
standing on a quadriga, was placed. The total height was about
165 ft. From Hadrian to Caracalla (d. 217) ali the emperors and
their families were interred here. The tomb was afterwards con-
verted into a fortress (comp. p. 355), and when the Goths underVitiges
besieged Rome in 537, after its capture by Belisarius, it repelled
their attacks. The city was at last retaken by Totila, successor of
Vitiges, after another terrible siege in 548. On the fall of Totila
in 552 the citadel passed into the power of Narses, the successor of
Belisarius. In 590 Gregory the Great, while conducting a procession
to pray for the cessation of a plague then raging, beheld the Archan-
gel Michael sheathing his sword above the Castel Sant' Angelo, in
commemoration of which Boniface IV. erected the chapel of Sanctus
Angelus inter Nubes on the summit. This was afterwards replaced
by the marble statue of an angel by Montelupo (p. 359), and in
1752 by the present bronze statue of the Archangel by Verschaffelt.
From 923 onwards the edifice was always used by the party in
power as a stronghold for the purpose of overawing the citizens.
In 1379 it was almost entirely destroyed by the Romans. From
the time of Boniface IX. (for whom it was restored by Niccolò
d'Arezzo) downwards the castle was held by the popes, who seem
to have caused the construction of a covered passage (passetto)
leading from the Vatican even before the dose of the 13th century.
This was restored by Alexander VI. The castle was further ex¬
tended by Julius IL In 1527 Clement VII. sustained a terrible
siege here, by the troops of Charles V., on which occasion Ben¬
venuto Celimi asserted he had thence shot the Connétable de
Bourbon. The outworks were constructed by Urban VHI. A thor-
ough restoration of the structure, begun in 1901 under the super-
intendence of Colonel Mariano Borgatti, is in progress.
The Entrance is opposite the Ponte Sant' Angelo (adm., see p. 172).
An attendant conducts parties every i/2 hr. On Sun. the dungeons and
store-rooms are not shown- Illustrated guide by Borgatti (see above ; 1902)