356 IV. Right Bank. ROME. a. The Borgo:
settlements here, named scholae, or borghi, of which in the 8th
cent, four are mentioned in history, viz. those of the Saxons (i. e.
English), the Frisians, the Longobards, and the Franks, who in
time of war formed separate companies of soldiers. In order to
protect the whole of this region against the predatory incursions of
the Saracens, Leo IV- surrounded it, in 848-52, with a wall 40 ft.
in height and garnished with round towers, and thus became the
founder of the Civitas Leonina named after him. This wall was
repeatedly destroyed during the conflicts of the middle ages, as on
the occasion of the retreat of Henry IV. before Robert Guiscard in
1084, and when the Castle of Sant' Angelo was destroyed by the
Romans in 1379. Part of it stili lingers to the W. of St. Peter's.
A new era in the history of the Borgo began with the return of the
popes from Avignon; streets gradually sprang up, and the walls
were considerably extended. Eugene IV- and Sixtus IV- were
particularly active in developing the Borgo, and it attained the
height of its prosperity in the pontificate of Julius IL and Leo X.
at the beginning of the 16th century. Paul III. and Pius IV.
renewed the fortifìcations under apprehension of an attack by Berber
pirates. Ant. da Sangallo began them by the construction of
the Porta Santo Spirito on the S. (1545); Michael Angelo raised
the imposing Belvedere bastion (1547) and provided the pian for
the remaining fortifìcations which extended the limits of the Borgo
mainly on the N. (Porta Angelica; Borgo Angelico) in 1560-70.
Down to the pontificate of Sixtus V. the Borgo belonged to the
popes, and lay without the bounds of the municipal jurisdiction;
but that pope incorporated it with the city as a '14th Rione'. The
papal court, however, was unable permanently to attract the bu¬
siness of the city to its neighbourhood, and until 1870 a sparse and
poor population, engaged in the humbler branches of trade, dwelt
beneath the shadow of the most famous church and the largest
palace in Christendom. When, however, the Prati di Castello began
to be built over soon after 1880, a change set in; an entire new
quarter (p. 359) has sprung up to the N. of the Borgo, and the 16th
cent, fortifìcations, including the picturesque Porta Angelica, have
been pulled down.
The principal channel of communication with the Vatican qUarter
is afforded by the Pùnte Sant' Angelo (PI. I, 12), originally
erected by Hadrian to connect his tomb with the city in A.D. 136,
and named after him Pons uElius. At the beginning of the bridge
Clement VII. erected in 1530 statues of St. Peter by Lorenzetto,
and St. Paul by Paolo Romano (1464). The ten colossal statues
of angels, formerly much admired, were executed from Bernini's
'designs in 1688, and vary considerably in point of artistic value
(p. lxxix). In 1892-94, during the Tiber regulation operations, the
bridge was completely restored. Only the three arches in the