Picture Gallery. ROME. HI. Southern Quarters. 353
pilgrimage from Phrygia to Rome. The Christian character of this,
however, has recently been disputed. — Over the first door on the
right is an inscription in honour of Quirinius (Cyrenius), governor
of Syria, by whom the census at the period of the birth of Christ
was held (Luke I. 2). The other inscriptions are distributed accord¬
ing to arches thus: i-iii. Elegies on martyrs, etc, of the age of
Damasus I. (366-384); iv-vii. Dated inscriptions (71; 238-557);
viii, ix. Inscriptions of doctrinal importance; x. Bisnops, pres-
byters, deacons; xi, xii. Other illustrious personages; xiii. Rela-
tives, friends, etc. ; xiv-xvi. Symbolic and other records ; xvii et seq.
Simple epitaphs from various catacombs. Finally, several Jewish
inscriptions (with the seven-branched candlestick and other symbols).
Two rooms (see p. 352) contain copies of pictures from the Cata¬
combs of St. Calixtus (Chapel of the Sacrament) and St. Priscilla
(Cappella Greca), the crypts of Lucina, the Ccemeterium Ostrianum,
etc. — Here are also a few unimportant originai works (praying
From the first arcade we pass to the right into a room, on the
floor of which is a large * Mosaic with 20 full-length figures and
26 busts of pugilists, found in the Thermae of Caracalla (p. 331)
in 1824. This work, dating probably from the end of the 4th cent.
and not from the age of Caracalla, bears obvious indications of the
decline of the art. The originai arrangement of this mosaic, which
has been freely restored and supplemented, is shown in the draw-
ings on the walls.
The adjoining Picture Gallery (Galleria de' Quadri) con¬
tains a few ancient frescoes (from Sant' Agnese and San Lorenzo
Fuori), mosaics, and a series of modern paintings mostly presented
to Leo XIII. Ali the better pictures by the Italian masters of the
15th and 16th cent, formerly here were removed in 1908 to the
picture-gallery of the Vatican (p. 388).
Opposite the N.E. corner of the Lateran is the edifice containing
the Scala Santa. The two-storied portico was erected by Sixtus V.
The Scala Santa is a flight of twenty-eight marble steps from the
palace of Pilate at Jerusalem, which our Saviour is said to have
once ascended. They were brought to Rome towards the end of
the period of the crusades, and may be ascended only on the knees.
They are now protected with woodr The two adjoining flights are
for the descent. At the footof the steps are two marble groups
by Jacometti, Christ and Judas, and Christ before Pontius Pilate;
also a kneeling statue of Pius IX. At the top of the steps we obtain
a glimpse into the old private chapel of the popes, the Sancta
Sanctorum, the only part of the old Lateran palace now extant.
It was erected in 1278 by a member of the Cosmas family for
Nicholas III., and contains a Christ in mnsaip ì™ the 9th cent, style