■ S. Giovanni in Laterano. ROME. HI- Southern Quarters. 345
Basilica Sancti Salvatoris, or Aula Dei, as being a second Zion,
and gradually became privileged to grani the most ampie indul-
gences. It was overthrown by an earthquake in 896, but was re-
erected by Sergius III. (904-911), and dedicated to John the Baptist.
In 1308 it' was burned down, but it was restored by Clement V.,
and decorated with paintings by Giotto. A second fire destroyed
the church in 1360, after which it was rebuilt by Urban V. and
Gregory XI. It was altered by Martin V. (1430) and Eugene IV.,
and finally modernized in the baroque style after the time of
Pius IV. (1560). The vestibule of the N. transept (next to the obelisk)
is the work of Domenico Fontana (1586). The present form of
the interior is mainly due to Fran. Borromini, to whom Innocent X.
entrusted the superintendence of the work about 1650. The principal
facade was added by Aless. Galilei in 1734, under Clement XII.
Under Leo XIII. the choir was enlarged by moving back the tribuna
(1878-85). — Five important Councils have been held in this church,
vis. those of 1123, 1139, 1179, 1215, and 1512.
The principal Facade, abutting on the Piazza di Porta San
Giovanni (p. 354), is very effective. In the centre, on either side of
an open loggia, are coupled columns on lofty pedestals, flanked
with pilasters. The Attic story is crowned by statues (20 ft. high)
of Christ between apostles and saints, which are conspicuous from
many parts of Rome. From the balcony in the centre of the loggia
the Pope used to pronounce his benediction on Ascension Day. The
vestibule beneath the loggia is 196 ft. long and 33 ft. deep. Of the
five entrances the Porta Santa, to the right, is walled up and is
opened only in the year of jubilee (p. 365). The centrai entrance
has two antique bronze doors brought from the Curia (Sant' Adriano,
p. 295). To the extreme left is an ancient statue of Constantine the
Great, found in his Thermae (p. 203).
The fagade of the S. transept, looking on the Piazza di San
Giovanni in Laterano (p. 343), is also adorned with a portico, built
by Sixtus V. in 1586. The pointed caps of the small campanili,
standing far apart, were added by Pius IV. The vestibule below,
to the right, contains a bronze statue of Henri IV. of France, by
Nic. Cordier (PI. 12; 17th cent.).
The Interior (at present under restoration), 426 ft. in length,
consists of a nave with doublé aisles, a transept, and choir. The
nave owes its present form to Borromini, who united the originai
columns in pairs to form twelve pillars. He retained, however,
the gorgeous wooden ceiling, ascribed to Michael Angelo but really
executed by Giacomo della Porta. The richly inlaid pavement was
a gift of Martin V. (Colonna). In the niches of the pillars are
colossal statues of the Twelve Apostles, of the school of Bernini,
and reliefs by Algardi. Over these are the figures of twelve pro¬
phets. On the right and left at the end of the nave are the only two