SS. Quattro Coronati. ROME, m- Southern Quarters. 343
Below the apse, are the remains of Buildings of the Imperiai, Age
(No. II, marked black in the Pian), built of brick. The first of the
threé adjoining chambers is enriched with stucco. The next is an ante¬
chamber to a Chapel Of Mithras, in which, rather singularly, a statue
of the Good Shepherd was found. These chambers are partly filled
with water and therefore inaccessible, but it is proposed to drain them.
A transverse Street opposite to San Clemente leads to theViA de'
Santi Quattro, which ascends to the left to the church of —
Santi Quattro Coronati (PI. II, 25 ; entrance by the gate of
the Ospizio di Orfane), dedicated to SS. Severus, Severianus, Carpo-
phorus, and Victorinus, who suffered martyrdom under Diocletian.
Five sculptors, who met with a similar fate for refusing to make
images of heathen gods, are also revered here (the 'scarpellini', or
stone-masons, therefore possess one of the chapels). The date of
the foundation is very remote, and probably some ancient struc¬
ture was used in building the church. After its destruction by
Robert Guiscard, it was rebuilt by Paschalis IL in 1111, restored
under Martin V. by Card. Alfonso Carillo, and afterwards partly
modernized. Key in the entrance-court to the right (1/2 fr.).
The church (under restoration since 1907) now has two Entrance
Courts, a peculiarity owing to the diminution of its size on one of the
restorations, probably by Paschalis II. It originally extended over the
whole of the second court, and its former breadth is indicated by the
ancient columns in the walls of this court. The disproportionate size of
the tribune in the interior can hardly, be otherwise accounted for. — On
the right, under the colonnade in front of the entrance to the second
court, is the Cappella di San Silvestro (belonging to the stone-masons),
consecrated under Innocent IV. in 1246, with interesting, though unattract-
ive ancient paintings from the life of Constantine, stili somewhat after
the Byzantine style. — The Interior consists of nave and aisles with
galleries. The tribune is decorated with baroque frescoes by Giovanni
da San Giovanni and contains a ciborium from the studio of Andrea
Bregno, presented by Innocent VIII.
To the right, farther on in the Via di San Giovanni in Laterano
(p. 339), is a large hospital for women. The Via di San Giovanni
ends at the Piazza di San Giovanni in Laterano (PI. Ili, 28), the
buildings in which were erected by Sixtus V., except the new houses
to the left, at the S. end of the Via Merulana (p. 209). In the S.W.
corner is the old Baptistery, in the S.E. angle the transept-fagade
of San Giovanni in Laterano (p. 345), and on the E. the Lateran
Palace, with the Museum (p. 347).
In the centre rises an Obelisk of red granite, originally erected
by King Tutmes III. (1436-1427 B.C.) in front of the tempie of
Ammon at Thebes, and brought by Emp. Constantius to the Circus
Maximus A.D. 357. In 1587 it was discovered there in three
pieces, and in 1588 was erected by Sixtus V. on its present site.
This is the largest obelisk in existence, being 105 ft. in height, or
with the pedestal 154 ft., and over 430 tons in weight.
We first visit the octagonal *Eterpti8tery, Il Battistèro, or San