340 IH- Southern Quarters. ROME.
i. San Clemente.
licas of Rome. Excavations begun in 1858 and continued from 1861
by Prior Mullooly (d. 1880) have laid bare the early-Christian lower
church and two different sfrata of Roman masonry below. The
Christian basilica (now the lower church) is mentioned by St. Jerome
as early as 392, and in 417 was the scene of a council of the church.
St. Cyril, the apostle of the Slavs, who died at Rome in 885, was
buried here. The basilica was almost entirely destoyed in 1084 on
the entry of Robert G-uiscard into Rome, and in 1108 Paschalis IL
erected on its ruins the present upper church, with which he in-
corporated several ornaments of the lower, such as the choir and
the ambones. The upper church was also frequently restored, finally
with considerable taste by Clement XI., who, however, added the
unsuitable ceiling of the nave. — St. Clement (91-100), according
to Roman tradition, was the third successor of St. Peter, and suf-
fered martyrdom in the Black Sea. This church, which stands on
the traditional site of his house, gives a title to a cardinal and
belongs to Irish Dominicans.
From the principal gate in the Via di San Clemente, we first
enter the Atrium, surrounded by a colonnade and paved with frag¬
ments of marble (giallo and verde antico), and beyond it the *Upper
Church, consisting of nave and aisles, but, like most early-Christian
basilicas, without a transept. Comp. p. lxii.
Interior. — The Nave with its fiat ceiling is separated from
the aisles by sixteen antique columns, and contains the *Screen of
the choir and the Ambones from the lower church, with the mono-
gram of Pope John Vili. (872; key kept by the sacristan). The
Canopy with four columns of pavonazzetto dates from the time of
Paschalis IL (p. lxiv). — In the Tribune is an ancient episcopal
throne,, restored in 1108. Mosaics (p. lxv) of the tribune of the 12th
century. On the rood-arch in the centre: Bust of Christ with the
symbols of the four evangelists, (1.) SS. Paul and Lawrence, below
them Isaiah, lower down the city of Bethlehem, (r.) SS. Peter and
Clement, below them Jeremiah, lower down the city of Jerusalem.
On the vaulting: Christ on the Cross, with John and Mary sur¬
rounded by luxuriant wreaths, below which are thirteen lambs.
On the wall of the apse, Christ and the apostles, restored by means
of painting only. — On the wall to the right of the tribune are the
monuments of Card. Roverella (d. 1476), by Giovanni Dalmata
and Andrea Bregno, and of Archbp. Brusati, by Luigi Capponi
(1485). — The chapel to the right of the Canopy is elaborately
adorned with frescoes of scenes from the lives of SS. Cyril and Metho-
dius, executed by S. Nobili in 1886 at the expense of Abp. Stross-
mayr. In the adjoining chapel in the apse, at the end of the right
aisle, is a statue of John the Baptist by Simone di Giovanni Ghini
of Florence (15th cent.). — To the left of the principal entrance,
the Cappella della Passione or di Santa Caterina, with frescoes