S. Giovanni e Paolo. ROME. HI- Southern Quarters. 337
restored in the 12th cent., from which period date the atrium (at¬
tributed to the English Pope Hadrian IV.), the mosaic-pavement in
the interior, and the architecture of. the outside of the apse, with
its graceful columns. In 1718 Cardinal Paolucci disfigured the in¬
terior by altering it in the baroque style. The conspicuous dome
over the chapel of St. John in the right aisle was added in the ponti¬
ficate of Pius IX., when the whole church was restored by Cardinal
Howard, the titular.
The modernized upper church is comparatively uninteresting,
but below it are the interesting remains of several earlier structures,
for, as at San Clemente (p. 340), several strafa of buildings have been
found here one above another. These include two Private Houses,
one with pagan frescoes, the other with Christian frescoes (unique
in Rome); an Early Christian Oratory; and a Mediaeval Chapel.
AH these were buried since the destruction of 1084 and the sub-
sequent restoration, and remained concealed for seven hundred.
years. They have been excavated since 1887 under the direction
of the Passionist Padre Germano. Festivals on June 26th (see
p. 165) and on the first Friday in Lent.
The entrance is at the end of the S. aisle (electric light; sacristan
50 e). We first enter a Vestibule, in which stand several amphorse,
one bearing the monogram of Christ. To the left of it is a hall, known
as the Tablinum, painted in imitation of marble. On the vaulted ceiling
are marine deities, flowers, and masks, and also three Christian subjects :
Moses on Horeb, Moses receiving the Tables of the Law, and a praying
woman. These paintings may date from the 4th or 5th century. A
room adjoining the vestibule on the right contains older frescoes of genii
with festoons of fruit on a white ground (2nd-3rd cent.). Farther on is
an Oratory ascribed to the building of Pammachius, adorned with fres¬
coes, including one of the beheading of three martyrs (the earliest known
representation of a martyrdom). At a lower level is a Bath Room,
belonging to the earliest constructions on this site. Finally behind the
Tablinum, next the Via di Santi Giovanni e Paolo, is a Chapel with fres¬
coes of the 9th and llth centuries (Christ with the Archangels and SS.
John and Paul; interesting representation of the Crucifixion).
Beside the church is a tasteful campanile. — The adjoining
monastery belongs to the Passionists. The garden (ladies not ad¬
mitted) commands a fine view of the Colosseum, to the N., and of
the Lateran, to the S.E.
We continue to ascend the street flanked by walls, and reach
the Arch of the Consuls Dolàbella and Silanus (PI. Ili, 25), con¬
structed of travertine in A.D. 10, to carry the Aqua Marcia over an
ancient street. — Near this, on the right, No. 8, is the portai of a
hospital which belonged to the former small church otSan Tommaso
in Formis (PI. Ili, 22,25), situated behind it. The mosaic-medallion
above the door, representing Christ between a black and a white
slave (indicated as Christian by a cross), was executed, according
to the inscription, by two masters of the Cosmas family (ca. 1218),
and is an allusion to the order of Trinitarians founded in 1198 for
the purpose of ransoming Christian slaves.