332 IH- Southern Quarters. ROME.
g. Via Appia i
course, etc, forming a square, was 240 yds. in length and 124 yds.
in breadth, while the entire enclosure was 360 yds. long and as
many broad. In the time of the emperors the act of taking a bath
had become a highly luxurious and elaborate process, the chief steps
in which were as follows : first, a hot-air bath of moderate tem¬
perature in the so-called Tepidarium, with anointing and gentle
massage; second, a hot-water bath in the Caldarium; next, a cold
plunge in the Frigidarium or Piscina; and finally, the 'rubbing
down' or 'shampooing', with a second anointing. Some of the prin¬
cipal rooms have been identified, but the names given to the others
are somewhat arbitrary. The latter were used for gymnastic exercises,
conversation, and repose, and included also libraries and gardens.
We first enter the Frigidarium, a large unroofed room, with a swim-
ming-basin, then pass to the right through a series of five small rooms
(Apodyteria), used for undressing, to the Palaestra, a square hall once
surrounded by columns, and containing scanty remains of mosaic pavement.
In the middle of the long wall, where the well is now, projected a
semicircular Exedra (where part of the Mosaic of the Athletes, now
in the Lateran, was found ; comp. pp. 348, 353). We then enter the
centrai hall, erroneously called the Tepidarium, a large room formerly
covered with a slightly vaulted roof; in the corners are four basins for
tepid baths. — To the right, beyond a small antechamber (cella media)
in ruins, is the Caldarium, a circular chamber with very thick walls,
the vaulting of which has fallen in. The heating arrangements and hot
air pipes have been discovered here. By ascending a small flight of
steps within the first pier on the right we obtain a good survey of the
ground-plan. — The smaller rooms are arranged symmetrically on both
sides of the three principal chambers. In the second (S.) Palaestra
(corresponding to the one mentioned above), where most of the above
mentioned mosaic was discovered, are exhibited architectural and sculp-
tural fragments, and the remains of a mosaic pavement with sea-monsters
(from the upper floor). — On the S. side of the outer boundary wall a
domed octagonal room has been preserved, beside a large swimming-bath.
Opposite the Caldarium, outside the W. wall, are distinct traces of a
Stadium for foot-races. Other remains of the Thermsee are scattered
throughout the neighbouring vineyards. — The exit is on the right of
the Frigidarium, to which we now return.
Continuing to follow the Via di Porta San Sebastiano, we next
reach,on the right, the ancient church of Santi Nereo ed Achilleo
(PI. Ili, 23, 26; custodian at No. 8a), rebuilt by Leo III. about
800, and again by Cardinal Baronius (p. 459) at the dose of the
The interior exhibits the characteristics of an early basilica. At
the end of the nave is an ambo on the left, brought from San Silvestro
in Capite ; on each side of the aitar is a marble candelabrum (beginning
of the 16th cent.). Above the arch of the tribune are fragments of a
mosaic of the time of Leo III. : Transfiguration, with Moses and Elias,
in front the kneeling Apostles, on the right the Annunciation, on the
left the Madonna enthroned (comp. p. lxiv).
The opposite church of San Sisto, restored by Benedict XIII., is
uninteresting. The monastery was assigned to St. Dominic by Ho¬
norius III. — The Via della Ferratella then diverges to the left to
the Lateran (p. 343).