f. Pyramid of Cestius. ROME. IH- Southern Quarters. 329
The Protestant Cemetery (PI. Ili, 18) is open from 7 a.m.
till dusk (ring; custodian, who has the key of the older cemetery
also, 20-30 e). The older burying-ground, adjoining the Pyramid
of Cestius, is now disused. In 1825 the present burial-ground was
set apart for this purpose. It is a retired spot, rising gently towards
the city-wall, affording pleasing views, and shaded by lofty cypresses,
where numerous English, American, German, Russian, and other
visitors to Rome are interred. The Chapel, in the Romanesque
style by A. Holzinger, was erected at the W. end in 1896-98.
Of the Old Cemetery Shelley wrote that 'it might make one in love
with death, to think that one should be buried in so sweet a place'. Close
to the entrance and seen from the outer edge of the moat surrounding
the cemetery, is the tomb of John Keats (d. 1821), bearing the melancholy
inscription : 'Here lies one whose name was writ in water'. Beside the
grave of Keats is that of his friend Joseph Severn (d. 1879). Behind
rests John Bell (d. 1820), writer on surgery and anatomy. J. A. Carstens
(d. 1798), the painter, is also buried here.
Amongst many illustrious names in the New Cemetery the eye will
fall with interest upon that of the poet Shelley (d. 1822), 'cor cordium',
whose ashes were buried here (near the upper, or eastern, wall) ; the pre¬
sent tomb, by Onslow Ford, was erected in 1891. Shelley's remains were
burned in the bay of Spezia, where they were washed ashore ; his heart,
the only part not consumed by the names, is now at Boscombe in
England. Adjoining Shelley is the grave of Trelawny (d. 1881). On the
opposite side of the walk lies J. A. Symonds (d. 1893), and below, in the
next walk, Constance Fenimore Woolson (d. 1894). The graves of
R. M. Ballantyne (d. 1894), the author, of William and Mary Howitt
(d. 1879 and 1888), and of John Gibson (d. 1866), the sculptor, and several
other artists may also be recognized. August Goethe (d. 1830), son of
the poet, is also interred here.
The *Pyramid of Cestius (PI. Ili, 18), originally on the Via
Ostiensis, but enclosed by Aurelian within the city-wall, is the tomb
of Caius Cestius Epulo, who died before 12 B.C. The Egyptian
pyramidal form was not unfrequently adopted by the Romans in their
tombs. That of Cestius is formed of concrete and covered with
marble slabs; height 116 ft., length of each side at the base 98 ft.
According to the principal inscription on the E. and W. sides ('C.
Cestius L. f. Poh. Epulo. pr. tr. pi. VII. vir epulonum'), the deceased,
son of Lucius, a member of the Tribus Poblilia, was prsetor, tribune of
the people, and member of the college of Septemviri Epulones, or priests
who superintended the solemn sacrificial banquets. The inscription on
the E. side below records that the monument was erected in 330 days
under the supervision of L. Pontius Mela and the freedman Pothus. — In
the middle ages the pyramid passed for the tomb of Remus. Alexander VII.
caused the deeply imbedded monument to be extricated in 1660, and
ordered the formation of the present entrance to the vault (19 ft. long,
13 ft. wide, and 16 ft. high), which was originally accessible by ladders only.
The Porta San Paolo (PI. Ili, 18), immediately to the E. of
the Pyramid of Cestius, is the ancient Porta Ostiensis. — Hence
to San Paolo Fuori, see p. 445 ; tramway, No. 5 in the Appendix.
The Via di Porta San Paolo, diverging to the N.E. from the
Via della Marmorata just inside the gate, reaches in 5 min. (left)
a fragment of the old Servian Wall (PI. Ili, 20; p. xxx), about