320 HI- Southern Quarters. ROME.
d. The Palatine.
lessly called 'the imperiai box') are three chambers with faded
remains of frescoes. The èlliptical structure in the S.W. half
dates perhaps from the time of Theodoric, whose name occurs on
brick-stamps found here.
A staircase between the great apse and the N.E. corner of the
Stadium ascends to the level of the upper passage round the Sta¬
dium. On a platform here, immediately to the left, are the remains
of several rooms and some large cisternjs. This point commands a
fine view of the Stadium and of the Caelius and the Alban Hills
to the S.E. We next pass the back of the apse, the lofty pro¬
portions and coffered vaulting of which should be observed, and
reach the remains of the Palace of Septimius Severus. We dis-
tinguish rooms with heating-apparatus and baths, but the general
pian is not clear. — We pass between the low remains of several
buildings, and then cross a paved bridge to a Belvedere supported
by three lower stories, and commanding a magnificent *View
ranging from the Colosseum in the N.E., over the S. parts of the
city and the Campagna, to the dome of St. Peter's in the N.W.
To the right of the Colosseum, in the foreground, are five arches
of the Aqua Claudia (p. 213), which supplied the Palatine with water.
(Beneath the aqueduct passes a new road.) More to the right (S.) are
the churches of Santi Giovanni e Paolo, the Lateran, in the foreground
San Gregorio, and above it Santo Stefano Rotondo and the casino of the
Villa Celimontana. Stili farther to the right appear the ruins of the
Thermse of Caracalla (the two towers beyond, to the left, belong to the
Porta San Sebastiano, beyond which is the Tomb of Csecilia Metella),
and Santa Balbina with its lofty tower; farther off, San Saba, with its
two-storied vestibule, and stili more distant the Pyramid of Cestius, and
in the Campagna San Paolo fuori le Mura ; nearer, the Aventine with its
three churches. The Jewish Cemetery (Cimitero Israelitico), in the fore¬
ground, with its numerous white tombstones, lies within the confines
of the Circus Maximus, in the hollow between the Aventine and the
Palatine. With a few trifling exceptions the walls of the Circus have
disappeared, but its form is distinctly traceable from our elevated stand-
point. The Circus Maximus was originally instituted by the kings, after¬
wards extended by Caesar and furnished with stone seats, and lastly
more highly decorated by the emperors. In the time of Pliny it was
capable of containing over 100,000 spectators, and after subsequent ex-
tensions the number of places was increased to 200,000. The last race
which took place here was under the auspices of Totila the Ostrogoth
in 549, when the city was to a great extent in ruins. In the centre ran
a spina, or longitudinal wall (comp. 443). The obelisks now in the Piazza
del Popolo and Piazza del Laterano once stood in this circus.
We recross the bridge, turn slightly to the right, and passing
the remains of black and white mosaic pavements, reach after
about 100 paces a modern staircase. This we descend to the S.
edge of the hill and thence return through the corridor to the
entrance of the Stadium. We now descend to the left to a series
of chambers on the S.W. slope of the Palatine, below the veranda
of the Villa Mills. These belonged to a building usually but
erroneously known as the —
Psedagogium. A portico of granite columns, one of which