Trajan's Column. ROME. IH- Southern Quarters. 313
of the wall of the great hemicycle which bounded it on the E., the
so-called Bagni di Paolo Emilio, may be seen in the court of No. 6,
Via di Campo Carleo (key kept by the custodian of Trajan's Forum);
it consists of two stories, with a tasteful brick fagade.
In the excavated part (about 120 by 50 yds.; adm. free, at the
same. hours as to the Forum, see p. 172) are seen the foundations
of four rows of columns, belonging to the five-aisled Basilica
Ulpia, which lay with its sides towards the ends of the present
piazza. The centrai hall was 27 yds., and the whole building 62 yds.
in width (these dimensions are about the same as those of San Paolo
Fuori, p. 445). The pavement consisted of slabs of rare marble.
The granite columns which have been erected on the bases dis¬
covered here perhaps belonged to the colonnade running round the
forum. The basilica originally had fluted columns of yellow marble.
On the N. side of the basilica rises **Trajan's Column, con¬
structed entirely of marble, the shaft of which (constructed of
18 monolithic drums averaging 5 ft. in height) is 88Y2 ft. high, and
the whole, including the pedestal and statue, 108 ft.; diameter
12 ft. below and 11 ft. at the top. The height of the column in¬
dicates the depth of earth removed between the Quirinal and Ca¬
pitoline in order to make room for the buildings: 'ad declarandum
quantae altitudinis mons, et locus tantis operibus sit egestus', as the
inscription, dating from A.D. 114, records. Including the base,
the height is 100 ancient Roman feet (97 Engl. ft.). Around the
column runs a spirai band, 3-4 ft. wide and 660 ft. long, of ad-
mirable Reliefs from Trajan's war with the Dacians, comprising,
besides animals, machines, etc, upwards of 2500 human figures,
2-21/8 ft. high at the foot (comp. p. lv). The Doric capital was
surmounted by a bronze statue of Trajan, replaced in 1587 by that
of St. Peter. The ashes of Trajan, who died A.D. 117 in Cilicia,
were deposited in the pedestal of the column. The tomb-chamber,
which remained open throughout the middle ages, was walled up
in 1770, but it was again made accessible in 1906. In the interior
of the column a staircase of 184 steps ascends to the top (for the
ascent a permesso from the Ministero dell' Istruzione Pubblica,
p. 251, is necessary). The column was surrounded on three sides
by a two-storied gallery, from which the upper reliefs could be
conveniently viewed. The foundations of this may stili be traced.
Adjacent, to the right and left of the column, were a Greek and a
Latin library. More to the N., between the two churches, lay the
tempie of Trajan, built by Hadrian as a completion to the work of
his adoptive father.
On the N. side of the piazza are two churches. That on the
right, Santissimo Nome di Maria, was vowed in 1683 in gratitude
for the deliverance of Vienna from the Turks and was erected in