Forum of Augustus. ROME. Ili- Southern Quarters. 311
the group of children of Charles I.); 131. Sassoferrato, Madonna; 133.
Guido Reni, Fortuna ; 142. G. H. Harlow, Wolsey receiving the cardinal's
hat; 14. Farufflni, Portrait of himself.
To the N.W. of Santa Martina e Luca and the Academy lay the
Forum of Cesar or Forum Julium, the centre of which was oc¬
cupied by a Tempie of Venus Genetrix. Some remains of the mas¬
sive enclosing wall, of tufa and travertine, may be seen in the court
of No. 29, Via delle Marmorelle.
The Via Bonella, which intersects the Via Alessandrina (p. 312),
leads to the ruins of the Forum of Augustus (PI. II, 20), which
were excavated chiefly in 1888-89. Augustus had vowed a tempie
to Mars Ultor (Mars the Avenger) during the battle of Philippi,
and afterwards resolved to combine with its erection the formation
of an extensive forum. The acquisition of the necessary area was
costly; densely populated streets had to be pulled down, and indi¬
viduai proprietors placed difficulties in the way of Augustus, who
was unwilling to resort to f orcible expropriation. His architect was
therefore compelled to accommodate his plans to an exceedingly
irregular site, the difficulties presented by which were, however,
most skilfully evaded chiefly by the construction of the large ex-
edrae in the sides of the bounding-wall. During the middle ages the
low-lying forum was reduced to a swamp (whence the name of the
district 'Pantano') ; Pius V. and Gregory XIII. caused the level of
the ground to be much raised for their new streets.
The back of the Tempie ofMars Ultor, dedicated on the 12th
May, 2 B.C., adjoined the E. enclosing wall of the forum. The
three beautiful Corinthian columns of Luna marble and the pier
with the entablature belonged to the colonnade on the right side.
The tempie was richly adorned with works of art, and contained
the Roman eagles captured from Crassus by the Parthians at the
battle of Carrhae and restored to Augustus in 20 B.C. Victorious
generals deposited here the insignia of their triumphs ; and the im¬
periai treasure (aerarium militare) was preserved in the cellars
of the lofty substructure. The massive wall of peperino blocks
which enclosed both the tempie and forum is stili in good preser-
vation on the E. side. The large exedra or circular recess in the
S. bounding-wall has several rows of smaller niches, the lowest of
which were occupied by bronze statues of generals who had enjoyed
triumphs, while inscriptions (elogia), placed by the emperor's de-
cree, announced their exploits. The costly marble pavement of the
now neglected and dirty forum lies 20 ft. below the present level
of the ground.
The Arco de' Pantani (comp. above), an ancient gateway of
peperino with travertine voussoirs, beside the three columns fo
the tempie, leads to the Via di Tor de' Conti, which skirts the E.