308 IH- Southern Quarters. ROME. b. Thermae of Trajan.
emperor for mercy; 4 (right end of attica). Conquered Dacians, with
their huts in the background. To the same period also belong the eight
Medallions of hunting and sacrificial scenes, which have been placed
with the same disregard to their connection: Start for the hunt (W. side,
to the left) and Sacrifice to Apollo (E. side, to the left) ; Boar-hunt
(E. side, to the left) and Sacrifice to Diana (W. side, to the right) ; Boar-
hunt (W. side, to the right) and Sacrifice to Silvanus (W side, to the
left) ; Lion-hunt (E. side, to the right) and Sacrifice to Hercules (E. side,
to the right). — The eight Reliefs on the sides of the attica, beside the
inscription, have been erroneously ascribed to the period of Trajan; the
heads of the emperor in these were arbitrarily restored with the features
of Trajan in the 17th cent., when the most characteristic details were
also added. These scenes (sacrifice, harangues before the people and the
soldiers, triumphal entry, etc.) probably refer to Marcus Aurelius and
belong to the same series as the reliefs in the palace of the Conser¬
vatori, mentioned on p. 279.
From the period of Constantine are the Smaller Reliefs inserted below
the medallions, representing the achievements of Constantine in war and
peace, and the Statues of Victories and Captives on the pedestals of
On the S.E. side of the Colosseum, where the origiual pavement
has been laid bare, we have an excellent view of the best-preserved
portion of the exterior wall. The pavement consists of slabs of
travertine, bordered at a distance of about 60 ft. from the building
by large boundary-stones of the same material, in the backs of
which are holes, probably for the insertion of railings or cords to
regulate the crowds of spectators entering by the various doors.
Round this open space ran a treet paved with lava. The remains
of a brick porticus that are seen to the E. of the modern street
perhaps belonged to the Thermae of Titus, which, like the Colos¬
seum, were built on part of the site of Nero's 'Golden House'
(p. 303). These baths occupied the slope of the Oppius, as far as
the modern Via degli Annibaldi, but are now completely destroyed.
They were adjoined by the much larger Thermae of Trajan,
which extended almost to San Pietro in Vincoli and San Martino
ai Monti (pp. 216, 215). The remains of the latter, which were
wrongly identified with the Thermae of Titus, were stili partly
standing down to 1795. What is now shown as the 'Terme di Tito'
belongs almost wholly to the earlier buildings (perhaps Nero's),
which Trajan incorporated in the foundations of his construction.
The entrance (adm. daily 9 till dusk; from June lst to Sept. 20th,
7 till dusk) is in the Via Labicana, to the left, near the beginning of
the street. Visitors should be careful not to enter these ruins in a heated
condition. The keeper supplies a light (fee). We first enter the sub-
structure of a large semicircular Exedra, which formed the centre of the
rear-wall of Trajan's edifice. Farther on are Nero's buildings, which
form an angle of 45° with the axis of the Thermae. Here we first enter
a suite of seven rooms opening off each other; to the left, in front of the
centrai room, are remains of a fountain. The special purpose of these
rooms cannot be definitely settled. Their chief interest lies in the
beautiful murai paintings (much injured and badly lighted), which served
as models for Giovanni da Udine and Raphael in the decoration of the
logge of the Vatican. A recess is pointed out by the guides (quite errone¬
ously) as the spot where the Laocoon (p. 400) was found.