Basilica Julia. itUME. 'Il- Southern Quarters. 291
between the Plebs and the Patricians, and rebuilt on a magnificent
scale by Tiberius in 7 B.C. Its remarkable arrangement would
appear to date from this later restoration. The Cella or inner
space of this tempie differs from the usuai type in having its longer
axis (130 ft.) at right angles to the longer axis of the tempie; it is
82 ft. wide. The N. part of the cella is concealed by the ascent to
Aracoeli. A flight of steps ascended to the Pronaos, which lay 20 ft.
above the level of the street and was 88 ft. long and 46 ft. wide.
The interior of the tempie was frequently used in early times for
meetings of the Senate, and after the restoration by Tiberius it
seems to have served chiefly for the exhibition of works of art.
In order to continue our examination of the Forum we now pro¬
ceed to the entrance in the Via delle Grazie (p. 289) and visit first
the Basilica Julia.
The Basilica Julia was founded by Caesar with a view to
enlarge the Forum, and was inaugurated in 46 B.C., after the battle
of Thapsus, though stili unfinished. Augustus extended it, but be¬
fore he could witness its completion it was burnt down. The build¬
ing was again twice injured by fire towards the end of the 3rd cent¬
ury. It was restored several times, finally in A.D. 416. After sev¬
eral partial excavations, it was almost entirely extricated in 1871-83.
The ground-plan of the basilica is a rectangle, about 110 yds. long
and 53 yds. wide, occupied by a covered centrai hall (90 X 17 yds.) en¬
closed on ali four sides by doublé aisles. The Central Hali,, in which
the four different sections of the tribunal of the Centumviri held their
sittings, was paved with variegated African and Phrygian marble. The
greater part of the pavement has been badly restored, a few fragments
of the originai only having been preserved. The Aisles were paved with
white marble, on which are stili seen a number of circles, and occasionally
writing, scratched on the surface by visitors. These were used in playing
a game resembling draughts ; for the ancient Romans were as ìond of
pastimes as the modern. Of the Piers nothing but the bases remain;
the blocks of which they consisted were used in building the Pai. Giraud
in the Borgo (p. 360). The brick pillars have been reconstructed, in a
manner indicated by some lingering remains and partly with the originai
materials. On the N.W. side the remains are somewhat more important,
owing to the fact that a mediaeval church (Santa Maria in Cannapara)
was built in this part of the basilica. Here, on the side next the Vicus
Jugarius, stili stand marble pillars adorned with Doric pilasters. The
exterior of the entire basilica was of marble ; the visitor must not be
misled by the travertine pier built up in modern times in the middle
of the main facade.
The main fagade of the Basilica Julia is skirted by the Sacra
Via, on the right side of which, opposite the Basilica, are seven
large brick pedestals, once coated with marble. The hasty con¬
struction of these and the brick-stamps refer them to the period of
Diocletian. The first two pedestals now support colossal columns (in
granite and pavonazzetto), which were found in fragments at their
foot in 1873 and were re-erected in 1898-99. The bases of the
columns were restored on the model of that of the Phocas column.
A little to the right of the Sacra Via, almost opposite the