d. S. Croce in Gerusalemme. ROME. 1- N. and E. Hills. 213
The Porta Maggiore (PI. II, 34) was originally an archway
belonging to the Aqua Claudia, above which the Anio Novus
flowed through a second conduit. The Aqua Claudia, 42 M. in
length, brought water from the neighbourhood of Subiaco (p. 480),
and the Anio Novus from the sources of the river of that name, a
distance of 51 M. The inscriptions record the construction of both
aqueducts by the Emp. Claudius, A.D. 52, and also their restoration
by Vespasian in 71 and by Titus in 81. Aurelian converted the
archway into one of the gates of his city-wall, and Honorius restored
and extended it; while the Colonnas used it in the middle ages as
the nucleus of a castle. Remains of the constructions of Honorius
and a long inscription of A.D. 405 may be seen outside the gate,
to the right. The gate was purged of the later additions by Gre¬
gory XVI. in 1838.
Two roads diverged hence in antiquity: to the left the Via
Praenestina, and to the right the Via Labicana, now named Via
Casilina. Between these, outside the gate, was discovered in 1838
the remarkable Monument of the Baker Eurysaces, erected in
imitation of grain-measures laid horizontally and vertically in alter¬
nate rows. The monument, dating from the dose of the republic, was
erected by the baker himself; and the principal inscription, thrice
repeated, is to the effect that 'This is the monument of Marcus
Vergilius Eurysaces, baker and public purveyor of bread.' Some
of the reliefs represent grinding, baking, and other processes in
his trade, and others refer to his post of purveyor to the state.
From this point to the Porta San Giovanni and the Amphitheatrum
Castrense, see p. 354; to the Campagna, see p. 437.
From the Porta Maggiore a road leads to (5 min.) Santa Croce
in Gerusalemme, passing under the arches of the Claudian aqueduct,
and skirting the town-wall on the inside. On the left is the new
Caserma Umberto Primo. — From Santa Maria Maggiore (p. 206)
to Santa Croce by the Via Conte Verde is a walk of 20 minutes.
Santa Croce in Gerusalemme (PI. II, 34), one of the seven
pilgrimage-churches, once named Basilica Sessoriana, because
the Sessorium, perhaps an ancient court of law, formerly stood
here, is said to have been erected by St. Helena in honour of her
discovery of the Cross. As early as 433 a Council met here. The
church was rebuilt by Lucius IL in 1144, and was modernized
under Benedict XIV. in 1743 by Domenico Gregorini, who added
the baroque fagade.
Interior. The nave was originally borne by 12 antique columns of
granite, of which eight only are now visible. An antique trough of basalt
below the high-altar contains the relics of SS. Anastasius and Caesarius.
In the tribune are largely repainted frescoes of the Invention of the
Cross, of the school of Pinturicchio. The church contains numerous
relics, including the 'Inscription on the Holy Cross'.
To the left of the tribune a staircase descends to the Lower Church,
where on the left is an aitar with a marble relief (Pietà, 17th cent.) ; at