210 I- N. and E. Hills. ROME. «• Porta San Lorenzo.
adjoining walk (to the left) is the so-called Porta Magica of the
former Villa Palombara. The cabalistic characters on the outside
contain a formula for making gold, communicated in 1680 by a
stranger to the Marchese M. Palombara, who, however, was unable
to decipher it, and caused it to be carved in marble at the entrance
to his villa, in the hope that some passer-by might be able to solve
the riddle. — At the N. angle of the piazza rises the church of Sant'
Eusebio (PI. II, 29), re-erected in the 18th cent., with the exception
of the campanile. The fine ceiling-painting, the transfiguration of
St. Eusebius, is one of the earliest works of Raphael Mengs.
About 5 min. to the E. of the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele is the
church of Santa Bibiana (PI. II, 32), consecrated as early as 470,
but several times rebuilt, for the last time in 1625 by Bernini. It
contains eight antique columns. On the high-altar is a statue of
St. Bibiana, a restrained and successful early work of Bernini. To
the left by the entrance is the stump of a column, at which the
saint is said to have been scourged to death.
The street known as the Archi di Santa Bibiana, passing
beneath the railway, leads to the Porta San Lorenzo and the basilica
of that name, which may be conveniently visited at this juncture.
We may return in that case by tramway (No. 12 in the Appendix).
The steam-tramway to Tivoli starts outside the gate, to the left
The Porta San Lorenzo (PI. II, 32, 33) stands on the site
of the ancient Porta Tiburtina, which led to Tivoli. The gateway,
constructed by the Emperor Honorius against an arch, over which,
according to the inscription, passed the three aqueducts Marcia,
Tepula, and Julia, is now closed. The new road starts from an open-
ing in the wall to the S.E. of the gate, and farther on joins the
ancient Via Tiburtina (p. 471). It is flanked at first by tali,
shabby tenement-houses, and does not afford views of the Sabine
Mts. until the church is reached, s/4 M. from the gate. In the little
piazza in front of the church is a Column with a bronze statue of
The basilica of *San Lorenzo fuori le Mura (PI. I, 36)
occupies the spot where Constantine founded a church on the burial-
place of St. Lawrence and St. Cyriaca. In 578 it was rebuilt by
Pelagius II. This ancient edifice, which was entered from the E.,
was entirely remodelled by Honorius III. (1216-27), who added the
present nave to the apse, and transferred the fagade with the porch
to the W. end. An angle formed by the outer walls shows where
the new part was added. Under Nicholas V. and Innocent X., and
under Pius IX. in 1864-70, the church underwent extensive altera-
tions, and the older half is now at least partly freed from disfigur-
ing patchwork. San Lorenzo is a patriarchal church, and one of
the seven pilgrimage-churches of Rome (p. xxxv).