d. S. Maria Maggiore. ROME. I- N. and E. Hills. 207
of Ephesus had sanctioned this appellation of the Virgin (431). Of
this edifice the nave with its ancient marble columns and mosaics
is stili preserved. In the 12th cent, the church was farther altered
in the mediaeval style. Eugene III. added a new porch, Nicholas IV.
a new tribune adorned with mosaics, and Gregory XI. gave the
campanile its present form and its pointed roof. About the end of
the 15th cent, began a new period in the history of the church,
when the irregularities of the additions were removed, and the
entire mediaeval structure received a Renaissance exterior. The two
large side-chapels, covered with domes, were added by Sixtus V.
in 1586 and Paul V. in 1611. The exterior of the tribune was
remodelled to its present form by Clement X., and the final resto-
ration was entrusted by Benedict XIV. to Fuga.
The Facade was designed by Fuga in 1743; the porch has a
loggia above it, which opens in three arches. The five portals in
this porch correspond with four entrances to the church (the last
of which on the left, the Porta Santa, is now built up) and a blind
door. To the right is a statue of Philip IV of Spain. The loggia
(staircase to the left in the vestibule ; one of the vergers opens the
door) contains mosaics from an earlier fagade, executed about 1300
by Gaddo Gaddi(?) and Philippus Rusuti, restored in 1825.
Above, in the centre, Christ enthroned, on the left the Virgin, SS.
Paul, John, and James; on the right SS. Peter, Andrew, Philip,
and John the Baptist. Below, on the left, the vision of Pope
Liberius and the Patrician Johannes; on the right, the meeting of
the two, and the tracing of the site of the church on the snow.
The Interior, dating from the pontificate of Sixtus III., 93 yds.
long and 19 yds. wide, and subsequently enlarged, produces a rich
and imposing effect. The pavement of the nave dates from the
middle of the 12th cent. (p. lxiv). The magnificent *Ceiling (1493-
98), presented by Alexander VI., has hitherto been ascribed to Giid.
da Sangallo; it is richly gilded with the first gold brought from
America. The architrave, adorned with mosaic, is supported by
36 Ionie columns in Hymettian marble and 4 in granite, above
which, and on the chancel arch, are *Mosaics of the time of
Sixtus III., stili antique in spirit and interesting in subject (p. lxv;
good light early in the morning). Those on the arch apparently
refer to Mary as the Mother of God: Annunciation, Infancy of
Christ, Slaughter of the Innocents, etc; left wall, history of
Abraham and Jacob ; right wall, Moses and Joshua (a few of the
pictures were restored in 1825). — In front of the chancel arch is
the High Aitar, consisting of an ancient basin of porphyry, said
to have been the tomb of the Patrician Johannes, and containing
the remains of St. Matthew and other relics; the canopy is borne
by four columns of porphyry. Below the high-altar is the richly
decorated Confessione di San Matteo, in which are preserved five