2. Route. 13
The most interesting object in Volterra is the *Museo Guar*
nacci (PI. 3 ; D, 3,4), in the Palazzo Tagassi, containing a valuable
collection of Etruscan antiquities found in the town and its environs.
Director, Dr. Ezio Solaini. Admission daily 9 to 3, 4, or 5, 1 fr.
Free cards of admission, entitling to a half-hour visit, are issued
on Sun., 9-1, at the Uffizio di Polizia Municipale, in ten Municipio
The museum was estabhshed in 1731 and greatly enriched by the
collections of the erudite Mario Guarnacci in 1781. Seven rooms on the
lower floor and as many on the upper are occupied by the collection of
Cinerary Urns or chests (upwards or 600). These are generally about 3 ft.
in length, and date from the latest period of Etruscan art, i.e. the 3rd or
2nd cent. B.C. A few of them are made of terracotta and sandstone,
but most are of the alabaster of the environs (p. 11). On the lid is the
greatly reduced recumbent effigy of the deceased; the sides are adorned
with reliefs, mostly clumsy and mediocre in execution; some of them
bear traces of painting and gilding. The representations on the urns are
partly derived from Etruscan life, partly from Greek mythology. Among
the former parting scenes are the most frequent ; the deceased, equipped
as a rider, is escorted by a messenger who bears a long sack containing
provisions for the journey or is accompanied by Charon with the hammer.
bacrifices and funeral processions occur frequently, as well as banquets,
races, contests of skill, etc. Greek mythology has supplied an abundant
selection of subjects, e.g. Ulysses with the Sirens ancl with Circe, the
abduction of Helen, death of Clytemnestra, Orestes and the Furies, death
flf Capaneus before Thebes (the gate a copy of the Porta all' Arco, p. 12),
Polynices and Eteocles, (Edipus and the Sphinx, (Edipus slaying his
father. There is a singular blending of luxuriance and melancholy in
the subjects and treatment of these works, and the same peculiarity is
often observed in the subsequent development of Etruscan art. — Five
other rooms contain marble sculptures (archaic relief in tufa of a warrior),
vases (mostly of a later style), coins, bronzes, utensils, gold ornaments,
and fine glass-vessels.
On the third story are the Arohives and the Library, containing
20,000 vols., and a collection of coins and seals. On the staircase are a
frieze in relief from San Giusto (see below) and other mediseval sculptures.
The Citadel (Fortezza; PI. D, 4), now a house of correction,
and shown only by permission of the Sotto-Prefetto, consists of two
parts, the Rocca Antica, said to have been erected on the ancient
town-walls in 1343 by Walter de Brienne, Duke of Athens, and the
Rocca Nuova, built by the Florentines after the capture of the
town (see p. 11). At the same time the latter constructed the tower
H Màstio, which was used as a prison for politicai offenders. —
Not far off, to the W., is the Piscina (PI. C, 4; no adm.), an ancient
reservoir, with a. vaulted roof supported by six pillars.
Outside the Porta San Francesco is the ruined Romanesque church of
Santo Stefano (PI. B, 2), near which, in what used to be called the Prato
Marzio, are, a fountain and a Roman portrait-statue. — Farther from the
■town, between the churches of San Giusto (PI. A, 1 ; 18th cent.) and La
Badia (1030; spoiled), lies a deep ravine called Le Balze, which was com-
paratively recently formed by erosion and continues to widen. Two former
churches of San Giusto were swallowed up by it, one in 1140 and the
other in the 17th cent., and the Camaldulensian abbey of San Salvatore,
founded in the llth cent., is threatened with the same fate.
About Va M. to the N.E. of the Porta a Selci (PI. E, 4) is the convent
of San Girolamo (PI. F, 3), the vestibule-chapels of which contain