to Rome. CIVITAVECCHIA. i. Route. 9
ficant Porto dementino, which is entirely abandoned in summer
on account of the malaria. This may be the ancient Graviscae,
the seaport of Tarquinii. The horizon is bounded inland by the
mountains of Tolfa (see below). The line crosses the Mignone (the
156y2 M. Civitavecchia. — Albergo Termale Traiano, Viale
Garibaldi, on the sea, with baths, 120 R. from 2V2) pens. from 5 fr.,
well spoken of ; Alb. Italia, also on the sea. — Railway Restaurant,
very fair. — British Vice-consul, Dr. P. R. Mackenzie; Lloyd's Agents,
A. Bellettieri & Co., Viale Garibaldi. — Steamer to Elba, see p. 13; to
Golfo Aranci in Sardinia once daily, see Baedeker's Southern Italy. The
station lies about i/2 M. to the S.E. of the harbour.
Civitavecchia, the seaport of Rome (sea-bathing), with 11,941
inhab., is the ancient Centum Cellae, whose harbour was planned
by Trajan. It was destroyed by the Saracens in 828, but in 854 the
inhabitants returned into the 'ancient city'. The fortifications, built
in the 16th and 17th cent., were restored in the 19th cent, by the
French, who occupied the town in 1849-70. The harbour has been
recently enlarged; on the outer mole is a lighthouse.
A good road (diligence twice daily in 3^2 hrs., returning in 2i/2 hrs. ;
fare 2 fr.) leads to the N.E. from Civitavecchia past the (3 M.) ruins of
some ancient baths (Aquae Tauri), and by (8V2 M.) Allumiere, to (10V2 M-)
Tolfa (1820 ft. ; Albergo Funari), the chief place among the volcanic
mountains of the same name (2010 ft.). Although extinct, they stili emit
vapours which deposit sulphur and alum. The mines are no longer of
great importance, but the scenery is picturesque.
The line traverses a dreary tract, running parallel with the
ancient Via Aurelio near the sea-coast as far as Palo. On clear
days the Alban and Volscian Mts. are visible, and stili farther off
the Monte Circeo (p. 503). The best views are on the right till
Rome is approached, and then on the left.
The train passes near Cape Linaro, where the Torre Chia-
ruccia, now a signal-station, indicates the site of the ancient Castrum
Novum. — 162y2 M. Santa Marinella, with a castle of the Odes-
calchi (1561-80), on the site of the ancient Punicum. — 168 M.
Santa Severa, a picturesque baronial castle, now the property of
the Santo Spirito Hospital at Rome (p. 361). Here in ancient times
lay Pyrgi, the habour of Caere (p. 487). Important remains of
the ancient polygonal walls may stili be seen; the once celebrated
tempie of Eileithyia was destroyed by Dionysius I. of Syracuse in
384 B. C.
171 M. Furbara. The solitary towers on the shore were erected
in the 16th cent., for protection against the dreaded Turkish cor-
177 M. Palo, with a chàteau of the Odescalchi, occupies the
site of the ancient Alsium (p. 487), where Pompey and Antoninus
Pius possessed country-residences. A branch-line runs hence to the
frequented sea-baths of Ladispoli (Alb. Diana Mare, 16 R., pens.